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OF i 



Vol. L Advent to Whitsun Day; Vol. IL. for Trinity-Tide. 
Each may be had separately, Price 5s.; by Post, 5s. 43d 

A Year with Great Preachers ; or, 


SUNDAY IN THE YEAR. Edited, from the Latin, by Rev. 

Also, Price 6s.; by Post, 6s. 6d. 

A Festival Year with Great 







Che Sundays of the Christian Bear. 




Vicar of Fewston, Otley, Yorkshire, 



- London: 
1873. ‘ 

Std. ty. 261. 


FoR the large circulation which has fallen to the lot of the 
several portions of these Homilies, now collected into 
one volume, for the favourable criticism accorded to them 
by the press, and for the number of private expressions 
of approval which the Editor has received from fellow 
Priests, he feels deeply grateful; yet his gratitude is not so 
much on his own account, or on that of his little book, as 
that this portion, at least, of the writings of S. Thomas 
Aquinas is allowed to be capable of supplying one of the 
wants of the present day—a really sound help to sermon- 
making. It is a most cheering and encouraging fact, that the 
men of the present day are willing in any degree to acknow- 
ledge, that they can learn something of value from the great 
Schoolman. Despite all the undeserved contempt and 
obloquy heaped upon the Schoolmen, both at the time of the 
so-called revival of letters and ever since; despite the vast 
advances which have been made during the last half century 
in every department of theological learning and criticism ; 
and, lastly, despite the growth of that spirit of infi- 
delity, a combined product of the nominalism which 
accompanied the religious convulsions three hundred years 
ago, and of the Protestant dogma of right of private 
judgment—the sermons of the “ Angelical Doctor” are 


. being not only read, but preached, in substance, if not in 
form, in many churches, beth at home and in the Colo- 
nies. The Translators work has been indeed a labour of 
love, sweetened by the theught and strengthened by the 
belief that this little book must contribute, in some small 
degree, to a revival amongst us of the Scholastic Theology. 
There are many reasons which render such a revival 
desirable, and at the present time especially so; but there 
is one reason above all others which claims to be stated 

In so far as things divine have an intellectual basis, and 
can be shadowed forth by any operation of the mind, they 
must be represented to us by conceptions which far surpass 
any possible earthly manifestation. of them. The “ hypos- 
tasis of things hoped for” can only spring from the abiding 
conviction, that we are now to rest upon certain ideas which 
hereafter shall be exchanged for their realities. Now, we 
can form but an idea of what the absolutely good, and true, 
and beautiful may be like; by-and-by we expect to see these 
ideas realized, in God, and in our glorified selves. Yet 
perfect goodness, and truthfulness, and beauty, and holiness 
are not mere ideas; they are realities, finding their true 
archetype in the mind and being of God—realities of which, 
by our union with Him through our Blessed Lord, we may 
hope to be partakers. The teaching of the four great 
Schoolmen, of Abert the Great, as well as of the Seraphic, 
Angelical, and Subtle Doctors, was, in common with that 
of Plato and the New Testament, essentially and entirely 
realistic. However the Scotists differed from the Thomists 
on some questions of Theology, they were quite agreed upon 
this point. However Luther may have differed from 
Zwingle, and Zwingle from Calvin, in their “views” of 


Sacramental grace, they were “consented together" in 
support of that nominalism which would reduce the deep 
mysteries of the Kingdom of Grace to mere names, and would 
limit our conceptions of them, and endeavours after them, 
to what it seems now possible to attain. It is not too much 
to say, that the Sadduceeism which is now sapping all the 
vitality of our faith and morals, is but the legitimate product 
of that nominalism which has lain at the root of all religious 
belief ever since the religious movement of the sixteenth 
century. Because the Scholastic Theology is realistic in its 
teaching, it is the only antidote which will be powerful 
enough to counteract the effects of that pernicious influence 
which the Teutonic Upas-tree has cast over so large a por- 
tion of Christendom. In these skeleton sermons, the realistic 
teaching is, with one single exception (Epiph. Hom. 1., § iii.), 
indirect, giving to them an anti-monastic tone and temper, 
at the same time not leading to the sacrifice of any portion 
of their practical bearing. Short and unpretending as they 
are, they admit of a threefold use. 

Firstly, they can be taken as profitable guides in directing 
private or devotional reading ; for they are full of vigorous 
and condensed thoughts— they bring things new and old 
together in a striking relationship. We notice a few such 
thoughts. In the Advent Homilies (I.) the sevenfold benefit 
of our Blessed Lord's second coming; and the moral 
aphorism, that “a man is in the judgment by thinking upon 
the judgment;" that goodness has its precepts, counsels, 
and promises (Hom. IV.); the threefold cry of Christ 
(Hom. IX.) In the Lenten Homilies, the fast in Paradise, 
and our Lord's fasting as joined with His Baptism (Hom. I.) ; 
the seven things that our Lord did upon the Mountain 
(Hom. VIII); and the threefold nature of the Word of 



God (Hom. X.) The Easter Homilies explain the three 
kinds of flowers in our Lord, and the three typical Maries 
(Hom. II.); what it is for a man to be at peace with him- 
self (Hom. V.); the three gifts of Christ—His Body, His 
Blood, His Soul (Hom. VI.); three reasons why the Ador- 
able Son came forth from the Father (Hom. XIIL) In 
the Trinity Homilies, we read of the Heavenly Feast, its 
makers, ministers, and guests (Hom. IV.); how the Holy 
Angels stand before God in contemplation, love, and praise 
(Hom. VI); why the Holy Angels desire the creature's 
future glory (Hom. VII.); the seven loaves with which she 
feeds the faithful (Hom. XIV.); three witnesses against the 
sinner in the Judgment—God, conscience, creation; it is a 
momentary thing which delights, an eternal thing which 
crucifies (Hom. XX.); unity of the intellect, of the affec- 
tions, of the life (Hom. XXXIIL); the security, the 
pleasaniness, and abundance of the City of God (Hom. 
XXXVII); the translation of the Saints (Hom. XLVII.) 
Such as these are the lines of reflection which S. Thomas 
offers to the contemplation of the thoughtful and devout 
reader, presenting the subject in germ, leaving its develop- 
ment to the effort of individual minds. As neither moral 
nor spiritual truth affeets any two persons in precisely 
the same way, such a method of presenting truth as this 
is, leaves for the initiated mind nothing to be desired; 
whilst the uninitiated soul would scarcely be capable of 
receiving the generalizations of S. Thomas in any form. 
Secondly, these Homilies are valuable as giving the 
scholastic interpretation of many texts of Holy Scripture; 
valuable as shewing how the Schoolmen saw our Blessed 
Lord as shadowed forth in type and prophecy in God's 

PREFACE. | vii 

servants of old. Amongst a vast number of explained texts; 
we select the following, as worthy of special notice :— 

In the Advent Homilies, Joel iii. 18, a prophecy of the 
Incarnation (Hom. I.); Hos. xii. 14, the spoliation of 
Hades; Eph. i. 18, the reparation of Heaven; Isa. lxi. 1 
fully commented on; 2 Sam. xxii. 36 applied to our Blessed 
Lord (Hom. II.); Ps. cxlviii. 6, universal service of God 
by creation (Hom. III.); Ps. xxxix. 3, the fire that burned, 
that of contrition. 

In the Lenten Homilies, Heb. ix. 10, the ** reformation,” 
as of the Jew ; Prov. i. 8, the * mother" is Holy Church 
(Hom. I.); Rev. xvi. 13, the frogs are spirits of detraction 
(Hom. IV.); Job xvi. 22, the walk of death (Hom. V.); 
Ezek. xxviii. 16, interpreted of a devil (Hom. VI; 
Ps. xxxi. 21, the “shining city” is the City of God; Isa. 
xxxi. 9, fire and furnace symbols of charity (Hom. VIIL}; 
S. John xiv. 30, our Blessed Lord walking dryshod over the 
sea of this world; Exod. xxxv. 30 gives the twelve breads 
with which our Lord feeds the faithful (Hom. VIII.); Zech. 
ix. 11, the deliveranee of the Saints from Hades (Hom. IX.); 
Job iv. 12, the mental word (Hom. X.); Coloss. i. 30, 
recruiting of the Heavenly Ones (Hom. XII.) 

In the Easter Homilies is noted Ex. xii. 21, Numb. 
ix. 3-5, Jos. v. 10, the three mystical Passovers (Hom. I.); 
Cant. ii. 12, flowers are the splendour of the Lord's glorified 
Body; S. Matt. xxviii. 2, the earthquake a leaping of the 
earth for joy (Hom. II.); Ezek. xxxvi. 25, clean water of 
Holy Baptism (Hom. III.); Jer. xi. 19, our Blessed Lord 
the Lamb brought to the slaughter (Hom. V.); Ezek. iv. 14, 
the Lord feeding His flock (Hom. VI.); Judges ii. 1 proves 
sadness of this present world; Nah. i. 13 applied to eternal 

viil PREFACE. 

happiness (Hom. VIII.); Lam. iii. 26, the elevation of the 
mind to God. 

The Trinity Homilies are very rich in deep and thoughtful 
readings of Holy Scripture. Isa. xxv. 5, the feast of the 
new Creation (Hom. IV.); Isa. vi. 5, seraphims of purifica- 
tion (Hom. VI.); Ps. cv. 6, the reparation of the Heavenly 
City (Hom. VII.); Isa. xxvi., the lost gift of glory (Hom. 
IX.); Isa. iii. 14 explains the “council” of S. Matt. v. 22 
(Hom. XII.); Ps. cxxxii. 15, the Eternal Bread (Hom. 
XIV.); Job xx. 27 referred to final Judgment (Hom. 
XVIII.) ; Isa. xxx. 1-8, shews the nature Jof the trust of 
the wicked (Hom. XXIIL); S. Mark vii. 83, mystical 
fingers put into ears (Hom. XXIV.); Ps. lvii. 3, healing 
power of Holy Baptism (Hom. XXVI.); Ps. Ixxvi. 2, 
Salem, the Tabernacle of Peace (Hom. XXVIL); Isa. 
xxxii. 20, a description of the City of God (Hom. 
XXXVIII.); Isa. iii. 14, army of Saints final ministers of 
punishment (Hom. XL.); Prov. xviii. 4, “deep waters" 
represent the Old Testament, the “ flowing brooks” the New 
Testament (Hom. L.) These Homilies are, to a limited 
extent, a commentary upon many difficult passages of the 
Inspired Canon. 

Thirdly, the great use of these Homilies is for sermon- 
making. They bring a text of Holy Scripture to bear upon 
each statement; they adopt a natural division of the subject ; 
they take up minute details which signify much, but which at 
first sight seem to be wholly unworthy of notice; they con- 
trast in the strongest possible way nature with grace. These 
four statements can be proved with the utmost ease by a 
careful reading of only a few of the Homilies. 

There are two methods by which these outlines can be 
expanded into a sermon of the required length for the present 


day: by enlarging upon the divisions ef each and every 
head, lengthening the whole sermon equally. But by far 
the most telling result is obtained, in the majority of cases 
at least, by confining the expansion to only one head. Take, 
for example, Homily X., for Lent: “The Word of God 
and its Hearers.” Omitting the first head, the three ways 
in which the Saints are of God; the third and fourth heads, 
the foolishness and misery of those who hear not; we treat 
alone of the second head, the Threefold Word of God which 
the Saints hear. 

“1. Eternal: S. John i. 1, ‘In the beginning was the 
Word.’” This naturally leads to the mention of all the 
utterances of God the Son, whether as the Word creative or 
prophetical, before the Incarnation; of what our Lord 
did in that infinite abyss of past time, in that eternal to- 
day of God when the Son went out to create the worlds. 
The pre-Incarnate naturally links itself on to the Incarnate 
Word, to our Lord’s eternal words which He spake in time; 
eternal in import, containing an eternal consequence either 
for life or for death. ‘These eternal words He is speaking 
in His Body the Church now; as He spake, so speaks the 
Church, proclaiming those words of truth and life, which 
became as wells of water in the souls of the faithful, 
springing up into everlasting life. So for ever to His Elect 
will the Saviour speak words of encouragement, and hope, and 
love; at the end of all things of love only, when charity alone 
remains. The Eternal Word, “I am Alpha and Omega.” 
Abel heard His voice; all the Patriarchs and Prophets of 
the Elder Church—all the Saints, Virgins, Martyrs, Con- 
feasors of the New Covenant; the Voice of the Beloved, 
eternal as His own nature is, eternal in power and action 
upon ourselves. The Saints “hear by faith.” He it is Who 



is speaking in His Holy Sacraments, by the mouths of 
His Priests. Meet it is that the Eternal High Priest 
should speak in the Eternal Mysteries of His Church and 
Kingdom. We need faith in these Mysteries, in order that 
we may hear His ** Eternal Word." 

2. Mental: Job iv. 12, “A thing [word, Vulg.] was 
secretly brought to me.” Not that secret word which, as 
S. Gregory says, the heretics pretend to hear, who represent 
the Woman of Solomon saying (Prov. ix. 17; Vulg. 7), 
* Stolen waters are sweeter, and bread eaten in secret is 
more pleasant." Not that secret word which would lift 
some above others, and which can only be obtained by secret 
means, but that communication of inward inspiration when 
the secret word is delivered to the minds of the Elect, of 
whom S. John says (1 S. John ii. 27), “His anointing 

teacheth you all things.” This is that mental word which is 

received in the heart by the utterance of the Holy Ghost ; 
secret, to be felt, not expressed in the noise of speech; it 
sounds secretly in the ear of the soul. Seek we to have our 
souls silent before God, ‘freed from pleadings of all emotion, to 
catch the accents of the mental word. This mental word is 
the fruit of contemplation ; and, by the chinks of such con- 
templation, God speaks to us, not in voice, but through 
mind; not fully developing Himself, yet revealing something 
of Himself to the mind of man. As we bore through the 
strata of earth to find that water which is silently circulating 
through its crust, so we, by contemplation, boring through 
the strata of the letter, find the ever-flowing grace which 
reveals itself as a mental word: the Saints hear this “by 
inspiration (Ps. Ixxxv. 8), ‘I will hear what God the Lord 
will speak °” (p. 18). 

. 8. Vocal: S. Matt. iv. 4, “ Man shall not live by bread 


alone, but by every word that proceedeth," &c. Vocal 
words: God's commands, His promises, the dogmatic 
teaching of the Catholic faith—this the Saints learn and 
hear * by preaching (S. Luke viii. 8), ‘He that hath ears 
to hear, let him hear’” (p. 19). Take heed how ye hear. 
Office of preaching in the Church. Duty of hearers and of 
preachers. Sum up these words: Incarnate Word, to be 
believed on ; Inspired Word, to be felt; Preached Word, to 
be lived upon. 

After all it must be left to the preacher's own 
peculiar habit of thought to determine which of the heads 
shall be expanded; and the manner in which this is to be 
done. The Homily upon which the attempt has been made 
isnot as favourable as some others for the experiment; 
it seemed fairer to take a more unlikely one to illustrate in 
the process, as far as the translator had the power to do so. 
Almost a course of Sermons could be founded upon Homily 
XLV., for the Twenty-third Sunday after Trinity. 

In regard to the Author of these Homilies, he was born 
A.D. 1224, in the castle of Aquin, in the territory of 
Labore, in Italy, being descended from the Kings of Sicily 
and Aragon.  Educated firstly in the Monastery of Mount 
Cassino, afterwards at Naples. In 1244, studied at Cologne 
under Albertus Magnus. Doctor of Paris, 1255. Returned 
into Italy, 1268. Professor of Scholastic "Theology at 
Naples. Died 1274, in the Monastery of Fossanova, near 
Terracina. An old distich prefixed to his portrait runs 
thus :— 

Nobilibus Thomas generatus utroque parente 
Terrarum scriptis claret ubique suis. 

And he wil shine as long as profound Scriptural 


Theology shall continue to hold its own in the world. May 
this little book be but a first fruit of the revival amongst us 
of the study of the writings of S. Thomas Aquinas. 

S. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, 
Feast of S. Matthew, 1867. 

Lavs Deo. 


»  lV.—THE Trinity HowiLiEs—Part I. 

àj V.—TIHE TamiTY HoMiLiEs— Part II. 








—Ó dl —À 


First Sunpay IN Apvent.—(From THE E»isTLE.) 
-The day is at hand." —Rom. xiii. 12. 

Tis word Day is. to be taken in a fourfold sense—** The 
Day is at hand ;” the day of mercy, the day of grace, the 
day of justice, and the day of glory. That Sun makes this 
a fourfold day, whose advent holy Church now celebrates. 
The day of mercy is the birthday of the Lord, in which 
ihe Sun of Righteousness arises upon us; or more truly, 
He Who made that day so glorious. The day of grace is 
the time of grace ; the day of justice is the day of judgment; 
the day of glory is the day of eternity. Joel speaks of the 
first—(ii. 18)—‘‘In that day the mountains shall drop 
down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk." Con- 
cerning the second, 2 Cor. vi. 5, ** Behold, now is the day 
of salvation." Of the third, Wis. i., ** The day of wrath, 
ihat day the day of tribulation." Concerning the fourth, 
Zach. xiv. 7, **But it shall be one day which shall be 
known to the Lord—not day, nor night ; but it shall come 
io pass that at evening time it shall be light." Psalm 
lxxxiv. 10, ** One day in Thy Courts is better than a 
thousand." The birthday of the Lord draws near, that 
devoutly the day of mercy may be celebrated and honoured ; 
the day of grace that it may be received; the day of judg- 
ment that it may be feared; the day of glory that it may 
be attained. The Church celebrates the first, Phil. iv. 5, 
* For the Lord is at hand." Isa. lvi. 1, ** For My salva- 
tion is near to come, and My righteousness is near to be 
revealed.” On account of the second, 2 Cor. vi. 2, ** Be- 
hold, now is the accepted time; behold, now is the day 
of salvation." On account of the third, James v. 9, ‘* Be- 
hold the Judge standeth before the door.” On account of 


the fourth, Rev. xxii. 12, ** Behold I come quickly, and 
My reward is with Me to give to every man according as 
his work shall be." 

We ought to celebrate the birthday of the Lord, the day 
of mercy, with mercy and truth. Christ came to us in 
these two ways, and so we ought to go to Him. Ps. xxv. 
10, ** All the paths of the Lord are mercy and truth." To 
celebrate the day of grace with purity and humility, for 
these two graces make acceptable grace. Of the first, 
Prov. xxii. 11, ** He that loveth pureness of heart, for the 
grace of his lips, the King shall be his friend." Of the 
second, James iv. 6, ** God resisteth the proud, but giveth 
grace to the humble." The Church celebrates the day of 
judgment with meditation and fear. As S. Jerome says, 
« Whether I eat or drink, that voice seems ever to resound 
in my ears, ‘Rise up, ye dead, and come to judgment.’ ” 
On the contrary, it 1s said of the wicked, Prov. xxviii. 5, 
* Evil men understand not judgment." We ought to 
hasten to run to meet the day of glory with righteousness. 
Heb. iv. 11, ** Let us labour, therefore, to enter into that 
rest." To four Christian virtues the Apostle exhorts us 
in this epistle. To mercy and truth in the words, ** Let us 
put on the armour of light." For the arms of light are | 
mercy and truth; for mercy is the shield by which we 
are defended from the enemy, and truth is the power by 
which we overcome all things. Of the first, Eccl. xxix. 
12, 18, ** Shut up alms in thy store-houses, and it shall 
deliver thee from all affliction. It shall fight for thee 
against thine enemies better than a mighty shield and a 
strong spear." Of courage, Eccles. iii. 4, ** Truth is great, 
and will prevail; it is great, and stronger than all things ; 
the whole earth invokes truth, and it blesses heaven itself ; 
it moves all work, and they tremble because of it, and there 
is no iniquity in it. A wicked banquet, a wicked king, 
wicked women, all wicked sons of men, and alltheir wicked 
works, and truth is not in them, and they shall perish in 
their iniquity, and truth shall remain.” The epistle further 
exhorts us to purity and humility, ** Not in chambering and, 
wantonness, not in strife and envying " (v. 18). Chamber- 
ing and wantonness are acts of riot which make impurity. 
Strife and envying proceed from pride. In prohibiting 
immodesty it exhorts to purity ; in prohibiting pride it ex- 


horts to humility. In the words, ‘ Let us walk honestly, 
as in the day," it awakens us to reflection upon and to fear 
of the judgment; that is, that we should so live as it is 
meet to live in the day of judgment. A man is in the 
judgment by thinking upon the judgment ; he lives honestly 
by fearing the judgment. It exhorts us to justice and 
despatch—** Now it is high time to awaken out of sleep ;” 
and, therefore, by hastening from the sleep of sin, to arise 
io the fulfilling of justice; and the reason is given why & 
man should do this: **For now is our salvation nearer 
than when we believed ;” to which salvation may we be 
led by Jesus Christ Our Lord. 


First Sonpay IN Apvent.—(From tue GosPEL.). 
*'* Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek,” &c.—S. Matt. xxi. 5. 

Tus is a prophecy of the Advent of Our Lord Jesus Christ, 
about which there are three signs. First, the dignity of 
Him Who is coming; secondly, the utility of His Advent ; 
thirdly, the manner in which He came. Of the first sign we 
read in the Gospel, ** Thy King cometh ;" a merciful King; 
a just King; a wise King; a terrible King; an eee 
King; an eternal King. A merciful King in sparing ; 

just in judging; a goodin rewarding; a wise in sen dU. ; 
an omnipotent King in defending the good; a terrible King 
in punishing the evil; an eternal King in ruling eternally, 
and in bestowing immortality. Of the first, Isa. xvi. 5, 
* And in mercy shall the throne be established.” Of the 
second, Isa. xxxiv., *' And behold, a King shall reign in 
justice ;" Isa. xvi. 5, ** And He shall sit upon it in truth 
in the tabernacle of David.” Of the third, Ps. lxxiii. 1, 
“« Truly God, is good to Israel, even to such as are of a 
clean heart." Of the fourth, Jer. xxii. 5, “I will rise 
unto David a righteous branch, and a King shall reign 
and prosper, and shall execute justice and judgment in 
the earth." Of the fifth, Esth. xiii. 9, **O Lord, Lord, 
the King Almighty, for the whole world is in Thy power.” 

Of the sixth, Wis. xi. 10, ** As a severe King, Thou didst 


condemn and punish." Of the seventh, Jer. x. 10, ** But 
the Lord is the true God, He is the living God and an 
everlasting King ;" S. Luke i. 88, ** And of His Kingdom 
there shall be no end." Of the seven, collectively, 2 Macc. 
i. 24, ** O Lord, Lord, God, Creator of all things, Who art 
fearful, and strong, and righteous, and merciful, and the 
only gracious King." Wisdom in the Creator, mercy in 
the pitiful, goodness in the good, justice in the just, severity 
in the terrible, power in the powerful, eternity in the 
eternal. This is the King Who cometh to thee for thy 
profit. Herethe use of the Advent 18 noted, for it was seven- 
fold as applied to the present time :—First, for the illumi- 
nation of the world ; second, for the spoliation of Hades ; 
third, for thereparation of Heaven ; fourth, for the destruc- 
tion of sin ; fifth, for the vanquishment of the devil; sixth, 
for the reconciliation of man with God ; seventh, for the 
beatification of man. Of the first, S. John viii. 12, ** I am 
the light of the world: he that followeth Me shall not walk 
in darkness, but shall have the light of life;" S. John i. 9, 
‘That was the true light which lighteth every man that | 
cometh into the world." Of the second, Hos. xiii. 14, 
** Q death, I will be thy plague; O grave, I will be thy 
destruction ;" Zech. ix. 11, ** As for thee also, by the blood 
of thy covenant, I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the 
pit wherein is no water." Of the third, Eph. i. 10, ** That 
in the dispensations of the fulness of times might gather 
together in one.all things in Christ, both which are in 
heaven and which are in earth, even in Him." Of the 
fourth, Heb. ii. 14, 15, ** That He might destroy him that 
had the power of death, thatis, thedevil ; and deliver them 
who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to 
bondagé." Of the fifth, Rom. vi. 6, ** Knowing this, that 
our old man is crucified with Him, that the body of sin 
might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve 
sin." Of the sixth, Rom. v. 10, ** For if, when we were 
reconciled to God by the death of His Son, much more, 
being reconciled, we shall be saved by His Life." Of .the 
seventh, S. John iii. 16, * For God so loved the world, 
that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever 
believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting 
life." It was because the holy Fathers saw the:good things 
which were about to happen at His Advent that they were 


calling with so great desire, ** O that thou wouldst rend the 
heavens and come:down.” Concerning these seven things 
the Prophet spake, Isa. lxi. 1, ** The Spirit of the Lord God 
is upon Me, because the Lord hath anointed Me to preach 
good tidings unto the meek; He hath sent Me to bind up 
the broken-hearted; to proclaim liberty to the captives, and 
the opening of the prison to them that are bound ; to pro- 
claim the acceptable year of the Lord," &c. He hath 
* anointed Me to preach good tidings.” Behold, the 
illumination of the world, for by preaching He hath 
enlightened the world for us; ‘‘ to bind up the broken- 
hearted,” in destroying sin; and sin being destroyed, 
makes the broken heart to be healed.  **To proclaim 
liberty to the captives:" behold the spoliation of Hades, 
for by spoiling Hades He led captivity captive. ‘The 
opening of the prison :" behold the restoration of Heaven, 
which is the opening of Heaven. ‘‘To proclaim the 
acceptable year of the Lord :” behold the reconciliation of 
man with God. ‘The day of vengeance of our God " is 
the day of the destruction of the devil: for so He visited 
with vengeance for all the injuries which the devil had 
done to the saints. ‘To comfort all that mourn :" behold 
the beatification of men. In this verse is noted the manner 
of His coming. ‘‘Meek:” in meekness Our Lord Jesus 
Christ wished to come ; and He wished to come meekly for 
four reasows. In the first place, that he might the more 
easily correct the wicked: Psalm lxxxix. 10 (Vulgate 
reading), ** For mildness is come upon us; and we shall 
be corrected." In the second place, that. He might show 
to all His lowliness : Eccles. ii. 19, ** My Son, do Thy 
work in meekness, and Thou shalt be beloved above the 
glory of men." In the third place, that He might draw 
the sheep to Himself, and that He might multiply to 
Himself a people: 2 Sam. xxii. 86, ‘‘ And Thy gentleness 
hath made me great." §. Bernard says, ‘‘ We wholly run 
after Thee, O good Jesus, on account of Thy meekness." 
In the fourth place, that He might teach meekness: S. 
Matt. xi. 29, ** Learn of Me, for I am meek and lowly in 
heart.” ‘There are four things which ought especially to 
commend meekness to us: the first, because it delivers us 
from evil ; the second, because it perfects grace ; the third, 
because it preserves the soul; and the fourth, because it 


deserves the land of the living. Of the first: It delivers 
from evil, because judicious meekness belongs to him who 
feels with no bitterness of mind. Of the second, Prov. iii. 
84, * He giveth grace unto the lowly." Of the third, 
Ecolesus. x. 81, ** Keep Thy soul in meekness." Of the 
fourth, 8. Matt. v. 5, “ Blessed are the meek, for they 
shall inherit the earth." Let us, therefore, ask that this 
Lord and King may come to us. 


Szconp Sunpay IN Apvent.—(From THE ErisTLE.) 

* For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our 
learning."—4Rom. xv. 4. 

Tur Apostle has taught us on the preceding Sunday to 
arise from the dead ; on this day he teaches us towards 
what we ought to arise, for the Scripture, which our 
heavenly Master has given for us, is to be studied and read. 
And the Lord as a good Master was the more solicitous to 
provide us with the best writings, that He might make us 
perfectly instructed. ‘* Whatever things," He said, ** were 
written, were written for our learning." But these writings 
&re comprised in two books—that is to say, in the Book of 
Creation, and in the Book of Scripture. The first book has 
so many creations; it has just so many most perfect 
writings, which teach the truth without a lie; hence, 
when Aristotle was asked whence he had learnt so many 
and so great things, answered, ** From the things them- 
selves, which know not how to deceive." But they teach 
two things to be learned ; and of the things which may be 
known four things are to be taught. First, that there is 
& God ; secondly, that this God is one; thirdly, that this 
God is triune; and, fourthly, that He is the highest good. 
For the world teaches by itself that it is His work. Wis. 
xiii. 5, ** For by the greatness of the beauty, and of the 
creature, the Creator of them may be seen, to be known 
thereby." Because they are one, and are preserved, in 
the same manner, they teach the unity of God ; for, if there 


were many Gods, the world would have already been de- 
stroyed, since division is the cause of destruction. S. 
Matt. xii. 25, ** Every kingdom divided against itself is 
brought to desolation; and every city or house divided 
against itself shall not stand." For all things exist by 
number, weight, and measure ; or, according to S. Augus- 
tine, ** On the '[rinity by mode, by species, and by order ; 
so that they teach & threefold Godhead." Wis. xi. 21, 
‘¢Thou hast ordered all things in measure, number, and 
weight." Because all things are good, they teach that He 
is the highest goodness through Whom so many good 
things proceed. According to S. Augustine it is a great 
token of goodness that every creature conceives itself to be 
good; therefore, because God is good, so are we. About 
the actions to be done, in like manner, we are taught a 
fourfold lesson. God is to be obeyed, loved, feared, and 
praised. Of the first, we ought to obey God, for all things 
serve Him. Ps. cxlviii. 6, ** He hath made a decree which 
shall not pass." Nothing among God's creatures does the 
Creator find to be disobedient, save the sinner and the 
devil. God teaches us to love Him by His benefits and 
gifts, which He shows to us daily. S. Augustine says that 
heaven and earth, and all things which are in them, on 
every side, say to me that I should love Thee; neither do 
they cease to say this by all things, that I may be inex- 
cusable if I love Thee not. By pains and punishments 
they teach us to fear God. We see that all things are 
prepared to punish those that rebel against their Creator. 
Wis. xvi. 24, ** For the creature serving Thee, the Creator, 
is made fierce against the unjust for their punishment: 
and abateth its strength for the benefit of them that trust 
in Thee." They teach us to praise God; for all things 
praise Him and invite us to His praising. 8S. Augustine 
says that it is wonderful that man does not always praise 
God, since every creature invites to the praising of Him; 
&nd this so plainly that all His creatures become as so 
many Scriptures of God, teaching us that there are four 
things to be known, as well as four commands to be 



Srcowp SUNDAY IN Apvent.—(F rom tHE ErisTLE.) 

" Whaisoever things were written aforetime were written for our 
learning."—&Rom. xv. 4. 

As we have treated of above, there are two books which 
are written for our learning, the book of the Creation, 
which formed the subject of the former homily; and the 
book of Scripture, of which we have now to speak. This 
book teaches us two things—things good and things evil : 
the good, that we should perform them; the evil, that we 
should avoid them. There are three attributes which are 
taught us about the Good, precepts, counsels, and promises; 
for the Good is threefold, and it is both honest, and pleasant, 
and profitable. The precepts teach us honest good, be- 
cause they teach the worship of the One God, and fairness 
of manners and of virtues which make the honest man. 
In counsels there is the useful good. 8S. Matt. xix. 21, 
* If thou wilt be perfect go and sell that thou hast and 
give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven." 
The delightful or joyous good flows from promises. S&S. 
John xvi. 22, ** I will see you again, and your heart shall 
rejoice.” Deut. iv. 1, **Hearken, O Israel, unto the 
Statutes and the judgments which I teach you that ye may 
live, and go in and possess the land which the Lord God 
of your fathers giveth you." Likewise, concerning the 
evil things there are three points to be noticed—prohibi- 
tions, dissuasions, and comminations, and they agree with 
the threefold nature of evil. There is the evil of deadly 
sin, of venial sin, and of the sin of eternal punishment. 
The prohibitions refer to the evil of deadly sin, ** Neither 
shalt thou commit fornication,” &c., and so with regard 
to the other prohibitions. The dissuasions refer to venial 
sin, Eccles. xix. 1, ** He that contemneth small things 
shall fall by little and little. Thou hast avoided grand 
things, be careful lest thou art overwhelmed in the sand." 
Comminations have respect to the evil of eternal punish- 
ment—lIsa. lxvi. 24, ‘‘ For their worm shall not die, 
neither shall their fire be quenched.” Rightly, therefore, 
does the Apostle say that whatever things were written in 
the book of Scripture were written for our instruction. 


Seconp Sunpay in Apvent.—(From THE GosPEL.) 

* And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the 
stars.” —S. Luke xv. 25. 

We spoke in the Gospel of the preceding Sunday of the 
mercy of Our Lord's second coming ; we will now treat of 
the justness of His Advent. It appertains to justice to 
punish the evil, and to reward the good; and therefore 
both these acts are treated of in this Gospel. The former 
in the words of the text, ** And there shall be signs ;" and 
the latter in the second part of this Gospel, ** Look up, 
and lift up your heads, for your redemption draweth nigh.” 
About the punishment of the wicked, the Gospel shows 
ihat the Creator and the creature unite for their punish- 
ment. This creature, which meets together for the 
punishment of the wicked, is threefold— spiritual, cor- 
poreal, and composite. The spiritual creature is an angel; 
the composite creature is a man; the corporeal creature 
is twofold, superior and inferior—the former being the 
heavenly bodies, the latter being the elements. Therefore 
the Lord points out in this Gospel that the wicked receive 
punishment from Him, by angels, by heavenly bodies, and 
from themselves. Firstly, they shall see the Son of Man; 
secondly, the powers of heaven shall be shaken; thirdly, 
there will be signs in the sun, moon, and stars; fourthly, 
the sea and waves roaring; fifthly, men’s hearts failing 
them for fear. Of the first, it is known that in a threefold 
manner God will afflict the wicked: firstly, in awarding ; 
secondly, in convicting; thirdly, in condemning. Of the 
first, **I have been naked ;” of the second, ** Since ye have 
not done it unto Me," &c.; of the least of these, &c. ; of 
the third, ** Depart from Me, ye wicked.” As in a three- 
fold manner the Son of Man afflicts the wicked, so do the 
angels also. In the first place by drawing the wicked to 
judgment ; in the second place by separating them from 
the good ; in the third place by consigning them to eternal 
fire. S. Matt. (xiii. 41, 42) speaks of this threefold office 
of the angels, **'The Son of Man shall send forth His 
angels," &c. *' They shall gather out of His kingdom," 


&nd so draw ihe wicked to judgment, since with their 
heavy bodies they cannot move so quickly as the angels. 
** All things that offend and them which do iniquity, and 
so they will separate the evil from the midst of the just.” 
** And shall cast them into & furnace of fire." So fulfil- 
ling the third office. The celestial body shall in the same 
way—in a threefold manner—afflict the wicked. In the 
first place, by frightening them with signs; in the second 
place, by afflicting them with darkness ; in the third place, 
by discovering their wickedness. Of the first, there shall 
be signs in the sun, moon, and stars, Joel ii. 90, 81, ** And 
I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, 
and fire, and pillars of smoke;” of the second, S. Matt. 
xxiv. 29, ‘‘ The sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall 
not give her light ;" of the third, Job xx. 27, ‘ The heavens 
shall reveal his iniquity.” 


Tump Sunpay In ÁpveNT.—(Fnow tHE ErrsTLE.) 

“ Let a man so account of us as the ministers of Christ."—1 Cor. iv. 1. 

In the preceding Epistle the Apostle has taught us that 
Christ was a Minister for us. ‘‘ But I say that Christ was 
the Minister of the Circumcision,” so, therefore, in this 
Epistle he teaches us that we ought to be the ministers of 
Christ, and six matters are treated of concerning this 
ministry. First, that we ought to make ministers of 
Christ; second, that we ought to avoid a thoughtless 
choice; third, to despise human discernment ; fourth, not 
to trust to individual conscience ; fifth, to submit all choice 
to Christ as the Judge; sixth, to seek praises from God 
alone. Of the first, ** Let a man so account of us as of the 
ministers of Christ ;” of the second, “to judge nothing 
before the time ;" of the third, that ‘it is a very small 
thing to me that I should be judged of you ;”’ of the fourth, 
“I know nothing by myself;" of the fifth, “until the 
Lord come;" of the sixth, ‘‘ then shall every man have 
praise of God." It ought to be known about the first 


point that there are three chief reasons why we ought to be 
ministers of Christ and to serve Him—(1) Because what- 
ever we are able to do He gave us the power to do when 
He created us; (2) because He served us by redeeming us ; 
(8) because He will further preserve us to glory. Of the 
first, S. Bernard, ‘“ Who ought we more rightly to serve 
than Him Who need not have created us unless he willed." 
* It is He that hath made us " (Ps. xcv. 7). Of the second, 
B. Luke xxii. 27, “ I am among you as He that serveth," 
for He temporally served them by washing their feet, in 
cleansing by His own blood the wounds of sinners, and 
in ministering to His own flesh—(1) S. John xiii. 5, 

* And began to wash the disciples’ feet." (2) Rev. i. 5, 

* Him that loved us and washed us from our sins in 
His own blood." Isa. xliii. 24, '* Thou hast made 
me to serve with thy sins." (8) B. Matt. xxvi. 26, 
** Jesus took bread and brake and gave it to His disciples.” 
S. Bernard, ** The good Minister Who gave His Flesh for 
food, His Blood for drink, and His Soul for a ransom, He 
will likewise serve in glory." S. Mark xii. 87, ** That He 
will gird Himself and make them to sit down to meat, and 
will come forth to serve them.” Rightly, therefore, we are 
said to be His ministers. But there are these things which 
He chiefly hates in His ministers—want of compassion, 
disobedience, and uselessness. Of the first, S. Matt. xviii. 
82, 38, “O thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all that 
debt, because thou desiredst me: shouldest not thou also 
have had compassion on thy fellow-servant, even as I had 
pity on thee?” S. Matt. xxiv. 48, 49, ** But and if that 
evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his 
eoming ; and shall begin to smite his fellow-servants, and 
to eat and drink with the drunken, the lord of that servant 
shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in 
an hour that he is not aware of, and shall cut him asunder, 
and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites : there 
shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.” Of the second, 

S. Luke xii. 47, “ And that servant which knew his lord's 
will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his 
will, shall be beaten with many stripes." Of the third, . 
S. Matt. xxv. 80, ** And cast ye the unprofitable servant 
into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing 
of teeth." There arethree things which the Lord requires 


of His servants—the first, that they should be cleansed 
from every defilement of sin ; the second, that they should 
be ornamented with every virtue; the third, that they 
should be decorated with honesty of manners. Of the first, 
Ps. ci. 6, ** He that walketh in a perfect way he shall 
serve Me." 1 Tim. iii. 10 (Vulg.), ** Let them minister 
having no crime." Of the second, 2 Cor. vi. 4, “ In all 
things approving ourselves as the ministers of God." Of 
the third, 1 Peter ii. 12, * Having your conversation 
honest among the Gentiles." Of these three things, Exod. 
xl. 12, 18, ** And thou shalt bring Aaron and his sons unto. 
the door of the tabernacle of the congregation and wash 
them with water;" (v. 15), ‘‘ and thou shalt anoint them 
as thou didst anoint their father," &c. 2 Cor. ii. 15, 
** We are unto God a sweet savour of Christ." But the 
Lord requires that we should serve Him in three ways— 
first, by imitating Him; second, by delighting in His 
service; thirdly, by fearmg Him. Of the first, S. John 
xi. 26, “ If any man serve Me, let him follow Me." Of 
the second, Ps. c. 2, ** Serve the Lord with gladness.” 
Of the third, Ps. ii. 11, ** Serve the Lord with fear." The 
first makes the service acceptable to the Lord; the second 
makes us ready in serving, ; the third preserves us in His 
service. But the Lord promises three rewards to His 
servants, viz., happiness, dignity, and eternity. Of the 
first reward, 1 Tim. iii. 18, ** For they that have used the 
office of a deacon well purchase to themselves a good 
degree." Of the second reward, 8. Matt. xxv. 28, ** Well 
done, good and faithful servant, thou hast been faithful 
over a few things," &c. Of the third reward, Rev. vii. 15; 
* And serve Him day and night in His Temple;" and 
afterwards He ‘ shall feed them, and shall lead them unto 
the living fountains of waters." Eternity is a fountain of 
life. As Dionysius says, '* Eternity is endless, and at the 
time the whole and perfect possesion of life." Of these 
three attributes, S. John vii. 26, ** Where I am, there also 
shall My servant be." Where Christ is, there is joyful 
exultation and eternal delightfulness, to which for His 
sake may the Lord God bring us. 



Tump SuwDay in Apvent.—(F Rom THE GospEt.) 

* Now, when John had heard in the prison the works of Christ," &c. 
—S. Matt. xi. 2-4. 

In thè preceding Gospel the Advent of Justice was treated 
of: in this Gospel the Advent of Grace is considered. 
Mention is here made of S. John Baptist, whose name is 
interpreted the grace of God ; or, as he in whom the grace 
of God was. Four things are here spoken about S. 
John—(1) his imprisonment ; (2) the question about the 
Advent of Christ by the disciples whom He sent; (9 
the answer of the Lord ; (4) the manifold commenda- 
tion of John. He was praised chiefly on four accounts 
—(1) for the strength of his constancy ; (2) for the rigour 
of his clothing ; (8) for the dignity of his office ; (4) for the 
holiness of his life. Firstly, when John had heard; 
secondly, ** Who art thou ;" thirdly, ‘‘ Go and show John 
again," &c.; fourthly, ** He began to say unto the multi- 
tudes concerning John." And, again (1) of the commen- 
dation, ‘‘ What went ye out into the wilderness to see? 
A reed shaken with the wind ?" (2) ** A man clothed in 
soft raiment.” (3) ‘‘Yea I say unto you, and more than 
a Prophet." (4) “ This is he of whom it is written, 
Behold, I send My messenger before thy face," &c. But 
afterwards it ought to be known concerning the bonds 
that three kinds of ,people are said to bein bonds. The 
godly are placed in the bonds of precepts; the impious, in 
the bonds of sinners ; the condemned, in the bonds of the 
tormentors. Of the first, Ezekiel iv. 8, ** Behold I will 
lay bands upon thee." Hos. xi. 4, * I drew them with 
the cords of a:man ; with bands of love." Of the second, 
Prov. v. 22, ** He shall be holden with the cords of his 
sins." Isa. x. 4 (Vulgate), ** That you be not bound 
down under the bond." Of the third, Wisdom xvii. 2, 
* Fettered with the bonds of darkness." S. Matt. xxii. 18, 
* Bind him hand and foot, and take him away and cast 
him into outer darkness." The first bonds are to be 
sought for; the second bonds to be dissolved; and the 


third to be avoided. For three reasons the bonds of the 
teachers are to be embraced—(1) because by them safety 
is obtained against all evil; (2) because he who is bound 
by them is protected by the wisdom of God ; (8) because 
from them he goes forth to government. Of the first 
reason, Eccles. vi. 80, ** Then shall her fetters be à strong 
defence." Of the second reason, Wisdom x. 14, “ And 
left him not in bonds." Of the third reason, Eccles. iv. 14, 
* Because out of prison and chains sometimes a man 
eometh forth to a kingdom." There are not only the 
bonds of preceptors to be embraced, but the bonds of 
sinners to be dissolved. For the sinner is bound with the 
chains of pride, of avarice, of luxury, and of an evil tongue. 
Of the first chain, Job xxxix. 5, ** Who hath sent out the 
wild ass free? Or who hath loosed the bands of the wild 
ass?" By the wild ass pride is understood. Job. xi. 12, 
** For vain man would be wise, though man be born like 
a wild ass's colt;" whence the bands of the wild ass are 
the bands of pride. Of the second. chain, Isa. v. 18, 
** Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity." 
Riches are vanity. Of the third chain, Prov..viii. 22, 
* Immediately he followeth her as an ox led to be a victim, 
and not knowing that he is drawn like a fool to bonds,” 
(Vul.), for the hands of a woman are the bonds that draw. 
Ecc. vii. 27, * And I find more bitter than death the 
woman whose heart is snares and nets, and her hands as 
bands." These are the bonds that are to be dissolved. 
These bonds are loosened in four ways—(1) by the grace 
of justification ; (2) by the grace of contrition ; (8) by the 
‘modesty of confession ; (4) by the penance of satisfaction. 
Of the first way, Ps. cxvi. 16, “ Thou hast loosed my 
bonds," that is to say, the Lord has done this by infusing 
grace. Of the second way, Dan. iii. 25, ** Lo, I see four 
men loose ;" where it is said the fire consumed the ehains 
of the children. By the fire contrition is understood. 
Psalm xxxix. 9, ** While I was musing the fire burned." 
Of the third way, Hos. v. 18 (Vulg.), ** And Ephraim saw 
his sickness, and Judah his band." Judah is interpreted 
as confessing. So that he saw his band when being 
penitent ; he saw himself bound by the band of sinners ; 
he declares himself in confession, 4hat he may be loosed. 
Of the fourth way, Nah. i. 12, 18, “ I have afflicted thee. 



‘And will burst thy bonds lin sunder.” So are loosed the 
bands of sinners; but the bands of the tormentors are to 
be avoided for three reasons—(1) because they are dark ; 

C) because they are cruel; (8) because they are eternal. 
Of the first reason, Wisdom xvii., ** Fettered with bonds 
of darkness." Of the second reason, Eccles. xii. 15, 
** He will not spare to do thee hurt, and to cast thee into 

prison." Of these bands, Isa. xxviii. 22, ** Lest by chance 
he should be bound with our fetters." Of the third 

reason, S. Jude 6, ** He hath reserved in everlasting chains . 

under darkness." He speaks of demons. From these 

chains may God deliver us, to Whom, &c. 


Fourta Sunpay iv Apvent.—(From tHe Eprsttz.) 

“ Rejoice in the Lord alway: and again I say, Rejoice. Let your 
moderation be known unto all men.”—Philip. iv. 4. 5. 

` Tue Apostle exhorted us in the end of the preceding Epistle 
that we should. reserve all things to Christ, the true Judge ; 
but, lest we should be overcome by the long delay, he said 
that He was about to come in a very little while. ** The 
Lord,” he said, “is at hand.” But the Apostle in the 
words of the text teaches three things—(1) he exhorts to 
inward holiness; (2) to honest conversation; (8) he 
subjoins the reason. I. Inward holiness consists in two 
things—firstly, that evil affections should be renovated; 
and, secondly, that good affections should be obtained. S. 
Bernard said that holy affection makes the saint, whilst 
evil affection, is to rejoice in the world. II. But there is 
an evil joy of the world, as in evil things, in vanities, in 
base pleasures. The joy in evil things is to rejoice in 
wickedness ; the joy of vanities is to rejoice in riches, 
which are vain; and the joy in base pleasures is to rejoice 
in wantonness. Of the first, Prov. ii. 14, ** Who rejoice 
to do evil, and delight in the frowardness of the wicked.” 
Of the second, Ps. xlix. 6, ‘‘ They that trust in their wealth, 
and boast themselves in the multitude of their riches.” 


Of the third, Job xxi. 19, ** And rejoice at the sound of 
the organ." S. James v. 5, “Ye have lived in pleasure 
on the earth, and been wanton.” S. Augustine says of 
these three kinds of joy—‘‘ What is the joy of the world ? 
Wantonness is the impurity of the wickedness of the 
world; to toy with, to be luxurious, to be 
allured, to be swallowed up, and to offend by baseness. 
To rejoice in the Lord is that joy which tends to salva- 
tion; for the loving-kindness of the Lord leads to justifi- 
cation, for He is most bountiful by way of remuneration. 
For a very small servitude He gives eternal hfe and the 
heavenly kingdom, and such a Lord is without doubt to 
be rejoiced in; Who saves His servants by redeeming 
them; Who dismisses all their debts by justifying them; 
and Who will crown them with an eternal kingdom by 
preserving them." 

Of the first, Isa. xxxiii. 28, ** The Lord is our King; 
He will save us." S. Matt. i. 21, * He shall save His 
people from their sins." Of the second, Rom. v. 1, 
* Therefore, being justified by faith, we have peace with 
God.” Of the third, Apoc. ii. 10, ** Be thou faithful unto 
death, and I will give thee à crown of life." Of these 
three, Isa. lxi. 10, **I will greatly rejoice in the Lord. 
My soul shall be joyful in my God, for He hath clothed . 
me with the garments of salvation. He hath covered me 
with the robe of righteousness as a bridegroom decketh 
himself with ornaments, and as a bride adorneth herself 
with her jewels.” To which joy may we be led through 
Jesus Christ our Lord. | 

Fourta Sunpay 1n Apvent.—(FRom THE GosrEL.) 
“ I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness.” —S. John i..23. 

In the former Gospel it was seen how Christ manifoldly 
praised John; in the present Gospel it is noted how 
John humbled himself. Morally, this world is under- 
stood by the text, Deut. viii. 15, ** Who led thee through 


that great and terrible wilderness, wherein were fiery 
serpents, and scorpions, and drought." The scorpion 
represents luxury, and the drought is avarice. In this 
desert the creature proclaims Christ, the Just One and 
the Preacher. The creature cries three things—firstly, 
that we should know God; secondly, that we should love 
Hif ; thirdly, that we should give Him the praise that 
is due to Him. Of the first, S. Augustine said, '* All 
things cry, God made me.” Of the second, he says again, 
* Heaven and earth, and all things which are in them 
on all sides, tell me that I ought to love Thee; neither do 
they cease to say this to all things, that they may be 
inexcusable if they love Thee not.’’ Of the third, he 
says, “ It is wonderful that man rests from the praise of 
God when all creation invites us to praise Him." In like 
manner Christ cries threefoldly—firstly, in doing miracles; 
secondly, by preaching things useful and profitable; thirdly, 
in dying for us. Of the first, 8. John xi. 48, ** He cried 
with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth." Of the second, 
B. John vii. 87, ** Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any 
man thirst, let him come unto Me and drink." Of the 
third, S. Matt. xxvi. 5, 6, “Jesus, when He had cried 
again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost." In the 
first cry His power appeared ; in the second, His wisdom ; 
in the third, His ineffable goodness and love. These three 
cries were necessary for our redemption—that He might 
be able to redeem ; that He might know how to redeem ; 
and that He might be willing to redeem us. Of these 
three reasons, 1 Cor. i. 80, ** Christ Jesus, Who of God 
is made unto us wisdom and righteousness and sanctifica- 
tion ;" also verse 24, ** Christ, the power of God, and the 
wisdom of God." Christ is the anointed One, and there- 
fore He is good ; He is power, and therefore He is power- 
ful; He is Wisdom, and therefore He is wise. In like 
manner the just cry manifoldly—firstly, in praying; 
secondly, in confessing ; thirdly, in praising. Of the first 
way, Ps. Ixxvi. 1, ** I cried unto God with my voice ; even 
unto God with my voice, and He gave ear unto me." Of 
the second way, Ps. xxxii. 5, “ I said, I will confess my 
transgressions unto the Lord, and Thou for&avest the 
iniquity of my sin.” Of the third way, Ps. lvii. 2, «I 
will cry unto God most high, unto God that performeth 


all things for me," for we ought to give Him thanks for 
His mercy. The Preacher likewise ought to cry three 
things—firstly, the wickedness of men; secondly, the 
misery of human weakness; thirdly, that the way of the 
Lord should be prepared. Of the first, Isa. lviii. 1, ** Cry 
aloud, spare not; lift up thy voice like a trumpet, and 
show My people their transgression." Of the second, 
Isa. xl. 6, ** The voice said, Cry. And he said, What 
shall I cry? All flesh is grass." Of the third, Isa. xl. 8, 
‘“ The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare 
ye the way of the Lord," &c.  Purity, humility, and 
justice prepare the way of the Lord. Of the first and 
second, Isa. lxii. 10, ** Prepare ye the way ;" and he adds 
the mode of preparing it—'* Cast up the high way," by 
removing the loftiness of pride, that the way may be 
made by humility; **Gather out the stones," by the 
removing of the other sins, which preparation is the office 
of purity. Of the third, S. John 1. 28, ** Make straight 
the way of the Lord," and by purity make the rough ways 
plain. Humility orders us in relation to God; Justice 
regulates us in regard to our neighbours ; and Purity with 
regard to ourselves. May we so govern ourselves that we 
may be worthy to obtain salvation through Jesus Christ 
our Lord. Amen. 


* THE 







* Be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renew- 
ing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and accept- 
able, and perfect, will of God.” —Rom. xii. 2. 

Tue Apostle in these words exhorts us to three things, in 
which consists the entire perfection of man. Firstly, that 
the form of this world be relinquished—** Be not conformed 
to this world." Secondly, that the form of the new life be 
assumed —*' but be ye transformed by the renewing of your 
mind."  Thirdly, that the will of God may be known— 
* that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and 
perfect, will of God." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that the form,* or 
manner of existence, of this world is threefold. (1) In the 
lust of concupiscence. (2) In the desire of earthly goods. 
(3) In the pride of life. Of these three, 1 S. John ii. 16, 
* The lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of 
life, is not of the Father, but is of the world." It is to be 

* The form of life and existence (Greek, opp; Latin, forma) 
is far more intensive than the mere habit (Greek, exzjce ; Latin, modus). 
—T; 7QnS. ` 

A. 2 


remembered that this threefold form has likewise a threefold 
manifestation—the “lust of the flesh" has a sensual form; 
the “lust of the eyes," an earthly form; the “ pride of life,” 
a devilish form. Lust makes a man sensual; avarice makes 
him earthly; pride makes him like the devil. Of these 
three, S. James iii. 15, ** This wisdom descendeth, not from 
above, but is earthly, sensual, devilish.” By the first, we 
are ‘conformed to this world” through gluttony and revel- 
ling; by the second, through avarice; by the third, through 
pride; so that they themselves will perish with the perishing 
world. As S. Greg. Mag. says, “ He who leans upon that 
which is failing must of necessity come to ruin when it 
perishes.” 1 S. John ii. 15, 17, “Love not the world." 
Why not? ‘The world passeth away and the lust thereof.” 

II. On the second head it is to be noted that the form of 
the new life is also threefold. It consists (1) in holiness of 
will; (2) in truth of speech; (3) in justness of deed. The 
first informs the heart; the second, the mouth; the third, 
the hands. Of the first, Eph. vi. 6, 7, * Doing the will of 
God from the heart, with good will.” Of the second, Eph. 
iv. 25, “ Putting away lying, speak every man truth with 
his neighbour.” Of the third, Gal. vi. 10, ** As we have 
therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men.” Of 
these three, Eph. v. 9, * For the fruit of the Spirit is in all 
goodness, and righteousness, and truth "—in ** goodness " of 
heart, in “righteousness” of deed, in “truth” of speech. The 
form of goodness makes us angelical, since by goodness man 
became like unto the angels. The form of righteousness 
makes us celestial; by righteousness we are likened unto 
the saints. ‘The form of truth makes us divine; by truth 
we are made like unto God. Of these three, Rom. xii. 1, 
* Present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable 
unto God." Living by faith, Heb. x. 38, “The just shall 
live by faith.” “ Holy," which is cleansed. ‘ Acceptable 
to God," through the truth, for God is truth. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted that the “will of 
God” is threefold. Firstly, ‘good ;" secondly, **acceptable;" 
thirdly, *perfect." This is to be understood in many ways, 
but chiefly in three. I. In a moral sense, the will of God 
was “good” in creating; “acceptable” in recreating; “ per- 
fect” in glorifying. “Good” in giving the gifts of nature; 
* acceptable” in giving the gifts of grace; * perfect" in the 


bestowal of glory. Of the first, Rev. iv. 11, ‘Thou art 
worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power; 
for Thou hast created all things, and for Thy pleasure they 
are and were created.” For they were in idea in the Divine 
mind, they were created to have an existence of their own, 
Of the second, Ps. xxx. 7, ‘ Lord, by Thy favour [tua volun- 
tate, Vulg.] Thou hast made my mountain to stand strong ;" 
since, in recreating, the Lord renewed the Divine beauty in 
us, and strengthened it by the favour of the Holy Ghost, 
Of the third, S. John xvii. 24, ** Father, I will that they 
also whom Thou hast given Me be with Me where I am; 
that they may behold My glory." Ps. lxxiii. 24, “Thou 
shalt guide me with Thy counsel, and afterward receive me 
to glory.” II. In another sense, the will of God is ** good” 
in us by cleansing us from all impurity; ‘acceptable " 
through the showing forth of pity; ** perfect" from the fer- 
vour of charity. Of the first, 1 Thess. iv. 3, * This is the 
will of God, even your sanctification,” če., cleansing. Of 
the second, S. Matt. ix. 18, *I will have mercy, and not 
sacrifice." Of the third, S. Luke xii. 49, “I am come to 
send fire on the earth, and what will I if it be already 
kindled?" By fire charity is understood. III. In a third 
sense, the “ will of God” can be viewed as “ good ” in those 
who are married; “acceptable” in the continent; * perfect" 
in prelates who are preserved for perfection. In the mar- 
ried, as exciting them to works of mercy; in the continent, 
to do good to others like them; in prelates, to lay down 
their lives for the brethren. Of the first will can be under- 
stood Ps. cxiii. 10, “Teach me to do Thy will.” Of the 
second, 1 Thess. iv. 4, ** That every one of you should know 
how to possess his vessel in sanctification and honour, not 
in the lust of concupiscenee.” Of the third, Ps. ciii. 21, 
* Ministers of His that do His pleasure." "The reward of 
His will is eternal life—Ps. xxx. 5, “In His favour [volun- 
tas, Vulg.] is life." 



“Behold! Thy father aa have sought Thee sorrowing."— 
. Luke ii. 48. 

Many things are taught in this Gospel according to the 
letter, as is manifest, but in this word we are taught to seek 
God, to which we are frequently exhorted in Holy Scripture. 
Three things are noted in these words—Firstly, the seekers, 
* Behold! Thy father and L" Secondly, the manner of 
seeking, *have sought Thee sorrowing." Thirdly, the per- 
son sought for, “ sought Thee.” 

I. On the first head it is to be noted that the seekers were 
Mary and Joseph, in whom two kinds of men are repre- 
sented by which the Lord is sought—(1) He is sought by 
the contemplative in contemplation; (2) by the active in 
action. Mary signifies the illuminated, and typifies the 
contemplative who in contemplation receive the Divine 
illuminations. Joseph is interpreted “increase,” and he 
signifies the active, who ought to have increase from works 
of mercy. The Lord is sought by both these, and to both can 
be applied. Ps. cv. 3, 4, ** Let the heart of them rejoice that 
seek the Lord. Seek the Lord and His strength." The 
first portion of this refers to the contemplative, who are in 
continual joy and jubilation; the second portion to the 
active, who now and then need to be strengthened. Again, 
by Mary, Star of the Sea, faith is signified; and by Joseph, 
ihe inerease of charity. Faith seeks for God, inasmuch as 
He is our Father; charity, inasmuch as He is the chief good. 
Of these two, Cant. v. 6, ** My soul failed when He spake. 
I sought Him, but I did not find Him.” Inasmuch as He 
speaks, insomuch did I seek, for faith cometh by hearing. 
* As far as he is beloved he seeks charity, which is the life 
binding the lover with the beloved," as S. Austin says. So 
plainly, if He be sought by charity, afterwards He shall be 

II. On the second head it is to be noted that He ought to 
be sought for in seven differen ways—(1) With purity of 
mind, that we inay be held to be free from every defilement 


of sin—1 Esd. vi. 21, “All. that had separated themselves 
from the filthiness of the nations of the earth to seek the 
Lord the God of Israel.” (2) With simplicity of intention 
—Wisd. i. 1, * Seek Him in simplicity of heart." (3) From 
the whole heart, that we may think only upon Him; (4) frora 
our whole will, that we may only desire Him—of these two, 
2 Chron. xv. 15, “ They had sworn with all their heart, and 
sought Him with their whole desire; and He was found of 
them." (5) Quickly, ere the time in which He can be found 
pass away—lIsaiah lv. 6, ‘Seek ye the Lord while He may 
be found, call ye upon Him while Be is near." (6) Per- 
severingly, without cessation—Ps. cv. 4, “Seek His face 
evermore.” (7) With sorrow for sin—Micah iv. 10, * Be 
in pain and labour to bring forth the daughter of Zion ...... 
the Lord shall redeem thee from the hand of thine enemies.” 
“I and My Father,” &c. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted that we ought to 
seek God, “have sought Thee;” and to do this for four 
reasons—because (1) He is just, (2) merciful, (3) good, 
(4) Life. God is just, since no one who seeks as he ought to 
do shall fail to find Him; merciful, since He so graciously 
receives those seeking Him—of these two, Zeph. ii. 3, “Seek 
ye the Lord ...... seek righteousness, seek meekness." He 
is good, that He may magnify and reward those seeking 
Him—Lam. iii. 25, ‘ The Lord is good unto them that wait 
for Him, to the soul that seeketh Him." He is Life, since 
He gives eternal life to those who are seeking Him— Ps. 
Ixix. 32, ** Your heart shall live that seek God.” To which 
life may we be brought, &c. 


“ Given to hospitality."— Kom. xii. 13. 
In this Epistle, which is altogether full of moral precepts, 

we are exhorted to great hospitality, to which four motives 
ought chiefly to move us. Firstly, the command of the 


Lord. Secondly, the example of the saints. Thirdly, the 
loss which is sustained by not exercising hospitality. Fourthly, 
the manifold advantage in its exercise. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted that the Lord 
enjoined hospitality by a threefold law—the law of nature, 
the old and the new law. (1) He commanded, by the law of 
nature, that as we desire to receive hospitality from others, 
so we should shew it to others—S. Matt. vii. 12, “ All 
things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do 
ye even so to them." (2) By the old law—lIsa. lviii. 7, ** Is 
it not to deal My bread to the hungry, and that thou bring 
the poor that are cast out to thy house?" Deut. xxvi. 12, 
*'The stranger, the fatherless, the widow, that they may 
eat within thy gates and be filled." (3) By the new law— 
Heb. xiii. 2, * Be not forgetful to entertain strangers." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted that the example 
of the saints teach us three things about hospitality —(1) 
That we should constrain strangers to “ come in unto us." 
S. Luke xxiv. 29, * They constrained them, saying, Abide 
with us; for it is toward evening, and the day is far spent.” 
(2) That we should protect our guests from harm—Gen. xix. 
4, 8, “I pray you, brethren, do not so wickedly ......... ; 
with these men do nothing, for therefore came they under 
the shadow of my roof ;" whence we may learn that it was. 
a patriarchal custom to protect guests from violence (3) 
That with joy and gladness we should minister abundantly 
to their necessities—Gen. xviii. 3, 6, 7, “ Pass not away, I 
pray thee, from thy servant. ......... And Abraham said, 
Make ready quickly these measures of fine meal; and 
Abraham ran unto the herd:” this history teaches us how 
with joy and gladness we ought abundantly to minister unto 

III. On the third head it is to be noted that three evils 
are incurred by those who are unwilling to exercise hospi- 
tality. (1) They are here punished by the Lord—Wisd.. xix. 
13-16, * Others, indeed, received not strangers unknown to 
them, but these brought their guests into bondage that had 
. deserved well of them. And not only so, but in another respect 
also they were wise; for the others against their will received 
strangers, but these grievously afflicted them whom they had 
received with joy. But they were struck with blindness.” 
(2) They shall be confounded in the judgment—S. Matt. xxv. 


43, “I was a stranger, and ye took me not in.” (3) They 
shall be shut up in an evil habitation—S. Matt. xxv. 4, 
* Depart from Me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared 
for the devil and his angels." 

IV. On the fourth head it is to be noted that for three 
reasons we ought to be given to hospitality. (1) By doing 
this we gain grace, as the woman of Samaria who talked 
with Christ. (2) By doing this we frequently entertain 
saints and angels—Heb. xiii. 1, * Be not forgetful to en- 
tertain strangers, for thereby some have entertained angels 
unawares.” (3) By doing this, we shall be received into 
an eternal, heavenly, and glorious habitation—S. Matt. xxv. 
33, 34, «I was a stranger, and ye took me in. ......... 
Come, ye blessed children of My Father, inherit the King- 
dom," &c. 




“And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the 
Mother of Jesus was there." —S. John ii. 1. 

Four marriages are spoken of in Holy Scripture—the first, 
historical; the second, allegorical; the third, tropological ; 
the fourth, anagogical. (1) The literal marriage is the 
carnal union between the man and the woman; (2) the 
allegorical is between Christ and His Church; (3) the tropolo- 
gical between God and the soul; (4) the anagogical between 
God and the Church Triumphant. Of the first, Esth. ii. 18, 
“The King made a great feast with all his princes and 
servants" on the occasion of his marriage with Esther. Of 
the second, S. Matt. xxii. 2, **'The Kingdom of Heaven is 
like unto a certain King which made a marriage for his son." 
Of the third, Hosea ii. 19, * I will betroth thee unto me in 
righteousness.” Of the fourth, S. Matt. xxv. 10, **'They 
that were ready went in with Him to the marriage.” We 
now treat of the literal marriage, which, firstly, God sanc- 


tioned in three ways ; which, secondly, implies three condi- 

I. On the first head it is to be noted that the literal 
marriage (1) God ordained in Paradise—Gen. i. 28, ** God 
blessed them and said, Be fruitful and multiply, and re- 
plenish the earth." (2) He confirmed it by His Word— 
S. Matt. xix. 6, ** What therefore God hath joined together, 
let no man put asunder." (3) He honoured it by His 
presence—“ Both Jesus was called," &c. (4) He magnified 
it by a miracle—'* The ruler of the feast had tasted the 
water that was made wine." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted that in literal 
marriages there should be present three good qualities. 
(1) Faith, that the marriage bed be not violated—1 Cor. 
vii. 4, “ The husband hath not power of his own body, but 
the wife." (2) Offspring, that children may be generated 
for the Lord—1 S. Tim. ii. 15, ** She shall be saved in child- 
bearing if they continue in faith." (8) An oath, that 
neither can be separated the one from the other—Eph. v. 
32, “ This is a great mystery; but I speak concerning Christ 
and the Church." The first good despoils the adulterers, of 
whom Heb. xiii. 4—** Whoremongers and adulterers God 
will judge;" the second, those who either procure barren- 
ness, or bring up their children not to worship and serve 
God ; the third, those who commit adultery, or marry two 
wives at the same time—Rom. vii. 3, ** If while her husband 
liveth she be married to another man, she shall be called an 
adulteress.” So we learn what are the hindrances to un- 
lawful marriage. 

* Be not wise in your own conceits."— Rom. xii. 16. 

IN these words, according to a twofold exposition, two 
sins are prohibited—the sins of pride and avarice. The 
text is then explained thus: * Be not wise in your own 


conceits;" that is, deeming yourselves to be wise and pru- 
dent, which would be an effect of pride—Isaiah v. 21, 
* Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes" Another 
explanation is—** Be not wise," &c.: hold not your wisdom 
for yourself alone, but also communicate it to others; hence 
the Gloss., exercise your wisdom not for yourself only, but 
rather for the benefit of your neighbour. 

Three tbings ought chiefly to dissuade us from the sin of 
pride—tirstly, it disorders a man towards God; secondly, 
towards his neighbour ; thirdly, towards himself. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted that by pride a man 
is disaffected toward God in three ways. (1) By falling 
away from Him-——Ecclus. x. 14, “The beginning of the 
pride of man is to fall off from God." (2) By fighting 
against Him— Ps. lxxiii. 23 (Vulg.), “The pride of them 
that hate Thee ascendeth continually." (3) By exalting 
himself against Him—Job xv. 26 (Vulg.), “ He hath run 
against Him with his neck raised up." Therefore is the 
Lord ever armed that He may resist the proud—S. James 
iv. 6, ** God resisteth the proud." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted that by pride a 
man is disaffected towards his neighbour in three ways. (1) 
By disturbing him with injuries—Prov. xiii. 10, ** By pride 
cometh contention.” (2) By vexing him with malice— 
Isaiah xiv. 5, * The Lord hath broken the staff of the 
wicked.” (3) By condemning and despising him—Job. xii. 
4, “T am as one mocked of his neighbour, who calleth upon 
God, and He answereth him.” 

III. On the third head it is to be noted that by pride a 
man is disaffected towards himself in three ways. (1) By 
deceiving himself—Jer. xlix. 16, “Thy terribleness hath 
deceived thee, and the pride of thine heart.” (2) By render- 
ing himself foolish—Prov. xxi. 24 (Vulg.), “The proud and 
the arrogant is called ignorant.” (3) By confounding him- 
self — Prov. xi. 2, * When pride cometh, then cometh 

Of Covetousness.— Against the sin of avarice the Creator, 
the creature, and Nature alike warn us. (1) The Creator 
by prohibiting it—S. Luke xii. 15, * Take heed and beware 
of covetousness." (2) The creature, in giving itself and its 
possessions. S. Austin says, “ It is a great sign of Divine 
goodness that every creature thinks to give somewhat of its 


own nature.” (3) Nature, by restraining it—Tobit iv. 16, 
* See thou never do to another what thou would hate to 
have done thee by another.” Of the two sick that are 
healed in the Gospel for the day, the leprous is a proud and 
the paralytic is an avaricious man. They are cured for two 
reasons, which the Apostle unfolds in this Epistle. (1) ‘ Live 
peaceably with all men,” which prohibits pride, the great 
destroyer of peace. (2) “Provide things honest,” which 
prohibits avarice. 



** Bohold, there came a leper and worshipped Him, saying, Lord, if Thou 
wilt, Thou canst make me clean.”—S. Matt. viii. 2. 

MonALLY, by this leper the sinner is understood, and this 
for four qualities of leprosy. Firstly, it is a corruption of 
humours. Secondly, it is a corruption of the members. 
Thirdly, it is infectious to others. Fourthly, it causes a 
separation from others. Sin is, therefore (i), a corruption 
of natural powers; (2) a failing of the gifts of grace; (3) 
an infection of one’s neighbours; (4) a separation from the 
joys of saints and angels. S. Austin calls sin a corruption 
of manner, form, and order. It takes away grace, since 
grace cannot exist with mortal sin—Wisd. i. 4, * Nor dwell 
in a body subject to sins." It infects neighbours and the 
unreasoning creatures — Ps. cv. 38, 39 (Vulg.), ** And the 
land ...... was defiled with their works ;" Jer. iii. 2, * Thou 
hast polluted the land with thy whoredoms." It separates 
man from fellowship of God and the angels—Wisd. i. 3, 
* Perverse thoughts separate from God." Of these four— 
Ps. xiv. 12, “ They are corrupt," behold the corruption of 
natural things ; “ they have done abominable works,” behold 
the separation came not for effect; abomination is a cause 
of separation; “those that doeth good," behold the loss of 
grace: when grace is lost no one can do good works; ** they 
are altogether become filthy," behold the infection. The 
leprous man chiefly infects by his breath. ‘These four par- 
ficulars of leprosy are described in Leviticus xiii. 45. ‘The 


leper in whom the plague is, (1) his clothes shall be rent, (2) 
and his head bare; (3) he shall puta covering upon his upper 
lip; (4) he shall dwell alone without the camp. Of (1), because 
heis rent and poured out in his natural powers; of (2), the 
naked head is a mind devoid of grace; of (3), the lip-cover- 
ing is to prevent infection: ** guard the door of my lips;” 
of (4), without the camp of God, separated from the habita- 
tion of angels and saints. 


* And when He was entered into a ship His disciples followed Him."— 
S. Matt. viii. 23. 

Four things are to be considered in this Gospel. Firstly, 
the entering of Christ and His disciples into a ship. Secondly, 
the * great tempest in the sea.” Thirdly, the prayer of His 
disciples—*^ Lord save us, we perish.” Fourthly, the obe- 
dience of the storm to the command of Christ—'* There was 
a great calm." 

Morally, we are taught also four things. Firstly, to enter 
into holiness of life. Secondly, that temptations rage after 
we have entered. Thirdly, in our temptation to cry unto 
the Lord. Fourthly, to look for a calm according to His 
will. | 

I. On the first head it isto be noted, (1) That he enters into 
a ship who follows a holy life—S. Matt. ix. 1, “ He entered 
into à ship ...... and came into His own city," just as by 
holiness of life man passes over and comes to his heavenly 
city. In the following Homily it will be explained why a 
holy life is likened unto a ship. (2) The disturbance of the 
sea by the tempest represents the temptations which rise up 
against holiness—Ecclus. ii. 1, ‘Son, when thou comest to 
the Service of God stand in justice and in fear, and prepare 
thy soul for temptation." (3) The cry of the disciples in 
the tempest is the prayer of the saints in tribulations and 
temptations—Ps. cxx. 1, ‘In my distress I cried unto the 
Lord, and He heard me." (4) The calm of the tempest is 


the cessation of temptation—Tob. iii. 22, “ After a storm 
Thou makest a calm." Of these four—Ps. lxix. 23-29, “I 
am come into deep waters" in the ship of holiness, behold 
the first; “ The floods overflow me," behold the second; **I 
am weary of my crying," behold the third; ‘ Thy salvation, 
O God, set me up on high" above my temptations, behold 
the fourth. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted that the tempest 
in the sea arose from the winds. Holy Scripture speaks of 
four winds when temptation arises, and trouble to the saints. 
Firstly, from the infestation of demons: this is a cold wind 
—Ecclus. xliii. 22, “ The cold north wind bloweth, and the 
water congealeth into crystal." Secondly, from the perverse- 
ness of heretics: this is a blasting wind—Gen. xli. 6, 7, 
* Seven thin ears and blasted with the east wind sprung up 
after them," and **devoured the seven rank and full ears." 
Thirdly, from the cruelty of tyrants: this is a vehement 
wind—Job. i. 19, * Behold there came a great wind from 
the wilderness" Fourthly, from the malignity of false 
Christians: this is a burning wind—Ecclus. xi. 4, “ He 
that observeth the wind shall not sow.” Of these four, Dan. 
vii. 2—“ The four winds of heaven strove upon the great 

III. On the third head it is to be noted that in the prayer 
of the Apostles there were three things which moved the 
Lord to help them. Firstly, because they besought Him in- 
stantly, * they awoke Him." Secondly, they asked humbly, 
* Lord." Thirdly, because they prayed for a useful thing, 
“Save us.” Of (1), Rom. xii. 12, ** Continuing instant in 
prayer;" of (2), S. Luke xviii. 13, 14, * The prayer of the 
humble publican penetrated Heaven itself ;" of (8), S. John 
xvi. 24, “ Ask and ye shall receive, that your joy may be 
full.” Of these three, S. Matt. vii. 7—** Ask, and it shall be 
giveu you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be 
opened unto you." “Ask” humbly, and ye shall receive; 
* geek" what is profitable, and “ye shall find;” ‘ knock" 
continually, and the Kingdom of Heaven shall be opened 
unto you. Unto which Kingdom may we be brought. 

NorE.—S. Thomas Aquinas has no Homily upon the Epistle for this 
Sunday. The first of two on the Holy Gospel has supplied the omission. 
These two Homilies, as will be seen, illustrate each other. 




" And when He was entered into a ship His disciples followed Him."— 
S. Matt. viii. 28. 

MORALL, by a ship holiness of life is signified—by 
reason of (1) the material; (2) the form; (3) the use. 
A ship is made of wood, iron, oakum, and pitch. 

I. On the first head, the material of the ship, it is to be 
noted that —(1) By wood is represented righteousness, which 
is the righteousness of Christ—Wisd. xiv. 7, ** Blessed is 
the wood by which justice cometh." (2) By iron, on account 
of its solidity, fortitude is expressed—Jer. i. 18, **Be- 
hold I have made thee this day ...... an inner pillar." (3) 
By oakum or tow, by which wounds are bound up, is im- 
plied temperance, by which is healed the wound of fleshly 
lust. Of those whose wounds have not been bound up it 
is said, Isa. i. 6, “ Wounds, and bruises, and putrifying 
sores: they have not been closed, neither bound up." Jud. 
xvi. 13, of Samson, when deceived by Delilah, and bound 
with new ropes, “he broke them from off his arms like a 
thread.” (4) By pitch is symbolized charity, which is the 
bond of souls—Gen. vi. 14, ‘Pitch it within and without 
with pitch.” A holy man is formed by charity—1 Cor. xvi. 
14, ** Let all your things be done with charity. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted that the form of 
the ship consists in five particulars. Firstly, the smallness 
of the beginning. Secondly, breadth of the middle. Thirdly, 
the height of the end. Fourthly, the narrowness of the 
bottom. . Fifthly, the wideness of the top. Of (1), the small- 
ness of its beginning, is the grief for past sins—Jer. vi. 26, 
* Make thee mourning as for an only son, most bitter 
lamentation.” Of (2), the breadth of the middle is hope of 
the eternal joys—Rom. xii. 12, ** Rejoicing in hope.” Of 
(8), the height of the end is the fear of eternal punishments. 
The holy man grieves over the sins he commits, and he fears 
the punishments which he merits, but he fails not through 
desperation in fear and grief—S. Matt. iii. 8, ** Bring forth, 
therefore, fruits meet for repentance." Of (4), the narrow- 


ness of the bottom is the humility which arises from highest 
goodness—Ps. lxxxi. 10, ** Open thy mouth wide and I will 
fill it." 

III. On the third head it is to be noted that the use of a 
ship in four ways stands for holiness of life. 1. The first 
use is to carry men across the sea. We ought by holiness 
to pass over the sea of this world to the heavenly country, 
to God—Wisd. xiv. 5, ** Men also trust their lives even to 
a little wood, and passing over the sea by ships are saved." 
2. The second is to carry merchandise, or fruits, which are 
the odour of good works, to be diffused from us on all sides— 
Job. iv. 25, 26, ** My days are swifter than a post ...... they 
are passed away as the swift ships." Phil. iv. 18, ** An odour 
of a sweet smell, a sacrifice acceptable, well-pleasing to God." 
9. The third use is to make war in them. We ought by holiness 
to war against the demons—1 Macc. xv. 3, ** I have chosen 
a great army, and have built ships of war." Eph. vi. 12, 
“ We wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against princi- 
palities, against powers." 4. The fourth use is to catch 
fishes, to convert men to God—S. Matt. iv. 19, “I will 
make you fishers of men." 


* Whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the Name of the Lord 
' Jesus, giving thanks to God and the Father by Him."— Coloss. iii. 17. 

Tue Name of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ is here 
noted of in three ways—Firstly, it is to be ever thought of. 
Secondly, it is to be ever used. Thirdly, it has manifold 

I. On the first head it is to be noted that the Name of 
God is to be used on five occasions—(1) In walking—Ps. 
xx. 7, ^ We will remember the Name of the Lord our God." 
(2) In praying—S. John xvi. 23, “ Whatsoever ye shall 
ask the Father in My Name, He will give it you." (3) In 
speaking; (4) in working—of these two, the text. (5) In 
hoping—Ps. xxxix. 5 (Vulg.), “ Blessed is the man whose 
trust is in the Name of the Lord." 


II. On the second head it is to be noted that the Name of 

God is to be used in five ways. (1) It is to be retained in 
the heart, and so become a cause of joy—lIs. xxvi. 8, **'The 
desire of our soul is to Thy Name." (2) It is to be heard 
by the ear, and so cause delight—Job xxix. 11, ** When the 
ear heard me, then it blessed me.” (8) It is to be carried 
in the hand, and so be a lever of strength— Prov. xviii. 10, 
“The Name of the Lord is a strong tower." (4) It isto be 
written on the forehead, as a mark of honour; it will make 
a man (Isa. lviii. 13) * holy of the Lord, honourable." 
. III. On the third head it is to be noted that the manifold 
virtue of this Name is expressed in eight particulars in the 
text—(1) In It were all things created. (2) By It are the 
demons put to flight. (3) By It were all infirmities healed. 
(4) Through It were sinners justified. (5) By It are the 
sad made joyful. (6) By It are the tempted helped. (7) 
Through It are the just increased in grace. (8) All who 
call upon It are saved. Note, that this Name enlightens the 
reason; soothes anger; delights the desire. The inha- 
bitants of the world unseen, fear It; of the earth, adore It; 
of Heaven, praise It. It spoils Hades; It liberates the 
earthly; It exalts the heavenly. 


“ Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn 
them; but gather the wheat into my barn."—.S. Matt. xiii. 30. 

In these words five things are noted—Firstly, the sin of 
the wicked, “tares.” Secondly, their punishment, ** bind 
them in bundles to burn them."  Thirdly, the goodness of 
the righteous, “the wheat.” Fourthly, their glory, “ gather 
into My barn.” Fifthly, the abundance of God's “barn.” 

I. On the first head it is to be noted that the tares are of 
three kinds, corresponding to three sins—(1) They are dar- 
nel, which signifies luxury. Darnel perverts the state of 
the reason just as luxury does—Ezek. xxiii. 9, * Upon whom 
she doted;” Hos. iv. 11, * Whoredom and wine and new 



wine take away the heart;” 1 Kings xi. 3, ‘ His wives 
turned away his heart." (2) They are vetch, which is 
bitter, which signifies avarice, and which afflicts the covetous 
in a wonderful way—Eccles. v. 13, 14, “ Riches kept by the 
owners thereof to their hurt. But those riches perish by 
evil travail.” There is a “sore evil" in collecting them; 
a worse in hoarding them; the worst of all in losing or 
leaving them. (3) They are wild oats, which on account of 
their uselessness signify pride—Job xi. 12 (Vulg.), “A vain 
man is lifted up into pride.” Truly tares are indeed evil. 

II. On the second head is to be noted their punishment, 
** bind them in bundles,” &c., of which three points are to 
be considered—(1) They will be bound with eternal chains, 
“bind them;” (2) they will be bound together “in bundles” 
—of these two, Wisd. xvii. 17, “ They were all bound toge- 
ther with the chain of darkness.” (3) They will be burnt, 
* to burn them ”—lIsa. lxvi. 24, ** Neither shall their fire be 
quenched." From five particulars can be learned the great- 
ness of this punishment by fire: (1) It burns, yet is not 
consumed—Wisd. xix. 20, **'The flames wasted not the flesh 
of corruptible animals." (2) With the heat, cold is also 
mingled—S. Matt. xiii. 42, “Into a furnace of fire: there 
shall be wailing” (from excessive heat) “and gnashing of 
teeth " (from intense cold). So the Gloss. (3) It will most 
cruelly afflict—S. Austin says, “So much hotter will it he 
than our fire; as our fire is than mere painted fire." (4) It 
wil be eternal—S. Matt. xxv. 41, “ Depart from Me, ye 
cursed, into everlasting fire." (5) It will be heat without 
splendour—Ps. xxix. 7, * The voice of the Lord divideth 
the flames of fire." In a flame is both light and heat; the 
Lord will divide it so that the heat alone remains. 

III. On the third head is to be noted the goodness of the 
holy (the wheat), three forms of which will be here men- 
tioned—(1) It is white on account of purity; (2) it is red 
on account of charity—of these two, Cant. v. 10, “ My 
Beloved is white and ruddy.". (3) It is heavy by gravity 
of manners—Ps. xxxv. 18, “ I will praise Thee among much 

E IV. On the fourth head is to be noted the glory of the 
Saints, “ gather the wheat into My barn "— which is (1) spa- 
cious, for the sake of pleasantness; (2) refreshing, for the 
sake of joy; (3) enduring, on account of eternity. Of the 


first, Ps. xxvi. 8, “ Lord, I have loved the habitation of Thy 
house, and the place where Thine honour dwelleth." Of 
the second, Ps. cxii. 8, ** Wealth and riches shall be in His 
house." Of the third, 2 Cor. v. 1, “An house not made 
with hands, eternal in the heavens." 

V. On the ffth head is to be noted the abundance of the 
“barn ”— it is full of corn and wine and oil. (1) Corn is 
the joy of the vision of the Son—Ps. lxxxi. 16, ** He should 
have fed them also with the finest of the wheat;" S. John 
xu. 24, * Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and 
die." (2) Wine is the joy of the vision of the Father— 
Ps. civ. 15, * Wine that maketh glad the heart of man." 
(3) Oil the joy of the vision of the Holy Spirit—Ps. xlv. 
7, “Thy God hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness 
above thy fellows.” The “oil of gladness” is God the Holy 
Ghost. Of these three, 2 Chron. xi. 11, “Store of victual 
and of oil and wine.” Gen. xxvii. 28, ** God give thee of 
the dew of heaven, and the fatness of the earth, and plenty 
of corn and wine.” 

“So run, that ye may obtain." — 1 Cor. ix. 24. 

Tae Apostle sets before us two things in this Epistle. 
Firstly, he exhorts us to run—*' run." Secondly, he points 
out the end of running—“ that ye may obtain." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted that the course to be 
run is threefold. (1) The first is the course of nature—Job 
ix. 25, * My days are swifter than a post;" Jer. xxiii. 10, 
4“ Their course is evil ;” 1 Cor. ix. 26, ‘I therefore run not 
as uncertainly." The course of nature is threefold, for 
naturally the creature runs in a threefold way. Firstly, 
they run in serving men—3 Ead. iv. 34, “Swift is the sun 
in his course,” for it travels in order that it may serve man. 
Secondly, in punishing the wicked—Wisd. v. 25, “The 
water of the sea shall rage against them, and the rivers shall 
run together in a terrible manner: a mighty wind shall 


stand up against them, and as a whirlwind shall divide them.” 
Creatures were naturally created to punish those who re- 
belled against their Creator "—Wisd. xvi. 24, “For the 
creature serving Thee, the Creator, is made fierce against 
the unjust for their punishment." Thirdly, they hasten in 
having aimed at nothing, when the creatures, who are natu- 
rally from nothing by themselves, strain after nothing. S. 
Austin asks, ** What is the present life save a kind of passage 
to death?" (2) The course of sin is likewise threefold. 
Firstly, the course of pride — Job xv. 26 (Vulg.), * He 
hath run against Him with his neck raised up, and is armed 
with a fat neck." Secondly, of avarice—Prov. i. 16, “ Their 
feetrun to evil.” Itis said of the covetous, Ps. 1. 18, ** When 
thou sawest a thief, thou consentedest with him." Thirdly, 
of luxury —Eeccles. vii. 26, * I find more bitter than death the 
woman whose heart is snares and nets, and her hands as 
bands." As sheep are led to the slaughter, so are men by 
luxury. (2) The course of grace is likewise threefold. Firstly, 
a course of doctrine—Gal. ii. 2, ** I went up by revelation, 
and communicated unto them that Gospel which I preach 
among the Gentiles, but privately to them which were of 
reputation, lest by any means I should run, or had run, in 
vain.” Secondly, of mercy—Gen. xviii. 7, 8, * Abraham 
ran unto the herd, and fetcht a calf tender and good ......... 
and set it before them.” Thirdly, of perseverance—2 S. Tim. 
iv. 7, “I have finished my course, I have kept the faith: 
henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteous- 

II. On the second head it is to be noted that the end of 
running so as to gain the reward implies three conditions. 
(1) We must run cautiously, lest we fall or tumble down into 
the pitfall of sin—Eph. v. 15, ** See then that ye walk cir- 
cumspectly.” (2) We must run quickly, lest another over- 
take us, or lest we should become torpid through sloth—Heb. 
iv. 11, “ Let us labour to enter into this rest.” (3) We must 
run perseveringly, so that we forsake not the course, nor fail 
of well-doing—S. Matt. xxiv. 18, ** He that shall endure 
unto the end, the same shall be saved." Patience is ehiefly 
needed to enable us to persevere, and to bear all the troubles 
which come upon us in this world—Heb. xii. 1, * Let us 
run with patience the race that is set before us, looking unto 



*" And he went out about the third hour, and saw others standing idle 
in the market-place, and said unto them; Go ye also into the vine- 
yard, and whatsoever is right I will give you."—S. Matt. xx. 3, 4. 

Four things are noted in these words. Firstly, the good- 
ness of the Lord: “ He went out” for the salvation of His 
people. For the going out of Christ to lead men into His 
vineyard was an act of infinite goodness—Habak. iii. 13, 
“Thou wentest forth for the salvation of Thy people." 
Secondly, the foolishness of man: **Saw others standing 
idle in the market-place." Nothing is more foolish than for 
man, who ought in this present life 80 to work that he may 
live eternally, to live idly—Ecclus. xxii. 2, “ The sluggard 
is pelted with the dung of oxen, and everyone that toucheth 
him will shake his hands." Thirdly, the necessity of working 
in the Lord's vineyard—* Go ye also into the vineyard ;" 
2 Thess. iii. 10, “ If any would not work, neither should he 
eat.” Fourthly, the profit of the labour—'* Whatsoever is 
right I wil give you;" Rev. xxii. 12, “Behold, I come 
quickly; and My reward is with Me, to give to every man 
according as his work shall be." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted that Christ is said te 
have had five goings out—(1) In the beginning of the world, 
as a Sower, sowing His creatures—S. Luke viii. 5, ** A Sower 
went out to sow His seed.” (2) In His Nativity, enlighten- 
ing the world—Isa. lxii. 1, **Until the righteousness thereof 
go forth as brightness, and the salvation thereof as a lamp 
that burneth;" S. John xvi. 28, *I came forth from the 
Father, and am come into the world." (3) In His Passion, 
saving His own from the power of the Devil, and from all 
evil—Isa. li. 5, ** My righteousness is near, My salvation is 
gone forth." (4) In providing, as & householder, for His 
family and affairs—‘‘The Kingdom of Heaven is like unto 
a man that is an householder, which went out early in the 
morning to hire labourers into his vineyard." (5) He will go 
out in judgment, in a threefold way. Firstly, as a Visitor, 
making a severe inquisition upon the wicked—Isa. xxvi. 21, 
* Behold, the Lord cometh out of His place to punish the ia- 


habitants of the earth for their iniquity." Secondly, as a 
strong fighter, subduing all His rebellious ones—Isa. xlii. 13, 
“ The Lord shall go forth as a mighty man; He shall stir up 
jealousy as a man of war." Thirdly, as a Judge, punishing 
the wicked after their deservings—Mic. i. 3, “ Behold, the 
Lord cometh forth out of His place, and He will come down 
and tread upon the high places of the earth." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted that for five reasons 
it is most foolish to live in idleness in this present life. (1) 
Man was born to labour—Job. v. 7 (Vulg.), ** Man is born to 
labour.” (2) From idleness evil is learned, as from a bad 
master—Ecclus. xxxiii. 29, “ Idleness hath taught much 
evil" (3) Idleness frequently commits dreadful sin—Ezek. 
xvi. 49, ** Behold, this was the iniquity of thy sister Sodom, 
pride, fulness of heart, and abundance of idleness.” (4) 
Idleness incurs the loss of eternal good—Prov. vi. 10, 11, 
* A little sleep, a little slumber, a little folding of the hands 
to sleep: so shall thy poverty come as one that travelleth.” 
(5) Because eternal toil is acquired from a short rest—Ps. 
lxxiii. 5, ** They are not in trouble [ Vulg., labour] as other 
men, neither are they plagued like other men;" but like 
demons, Ps. xlviii. 9, 10 (Vulg.), * shall labour for ever, and 
shall live unto the end.” 

III. On the third head it is to be noted that this vineyard 
in which men are sent to labour is righteousness, in which, 
as S. Chrysostom observes, there are as many plants as there 
are virtues, and in which we perform five works. (1) Plant- 
ing it with good works and graces—Ps. cvii. 37, ** Plant vine- 
yards which may yield fruits of increase;" Prov. xxxi. 16, 
* With the fruit of her hands she planted the vineyard.” 
(2) Clearing it from thorns, which are vices, which the idle 
do not do—Prov. xxiv. 30, 81, * I went by the field of the 
slothful and by the vineyard of the man void of understanding, 
and, lo! it was all grown over with thorns, and nettles had 
covered the face thereof.” (3) Pruning the superfluous 
shoots—Cant. ii. 12 (Vulg.), ** The time for pruning is come ;” 
S. John xv, 2, “ Every branch that beareth fruit He purgeth 
it that it may bring forth more fruit.” (4) Restraining the 
little foxes, the demons—Cant. ii. 15, “ Take us the foxes, 
the little foxes that spoil the vines. (5) Protecting them 
from robbers—+.e., from the praises and the blames of men— 
Cant. i. 6, “They made me the keeper of the vineyards.” 


IV. On the fourth head it is to be noted that the reward 
of the labourers is a penny of the Gospel, which is equal to 
a thousand silver pieces— Cant. viii. 11, * Thou, O Solomon, 
must have a thousand,” for the thousand pieces of silver are 
the thousand joys of eternity. To which may we be brought. 


“In labours more abundant.”—2 Cor, xi. 23. 

Horr SCRIPTURE treats of four kinds of labour or travail. 
Firstly, material labour, by which man supplies the deficencies 
of nature—Job. v. 7, ‘‘Man is born unto trouble" (Vulg., 
labour). Secondly, the labour of sin, in which a man toils 
at committing sin—Jer. ix. 5, “ Weary themselves to 
commit iniquity.” Thirdly, the labour of Gehenna, after 
which there follows no rest—Ps. xlviii. 9, 10 (Vulg.), 
* Shall labour for ever, and shall still live unto the end.” 
Fourthly, the labour of grace, which the just undergo in 
order to do good works—Prov. x. 16, “The labour of the 
righteous tendeth to life." Three of these kinds of labour 
are to be noticed. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted that in natwral 
labour five points are to be considered. (1) It was inflicted 
on man on account of sin, whence it is manifest that man 
should hate sin as the eause of his toil—Gen. iii. 17-19, 
* Cursed is the ground for thy sake: in the sweat of thy 
face shalt thou eat bread." (2) That if endured in love 
eternal blessedness is the fruit of labour—Ps. exxviii. 2, 
“Thou shalt eat the labour of thine hands, happy shalt 
thou be." (3) It is demanded because the fruit of the 
land is frequently consumed by wild beasts, by insects, and 
by enemies; all of which are the effects of sin, therefore 
man ought to hate sin—Deut. xxviii. 33, ‘The fruit of thy 
land, and all thy labours, shall a nation which thou knowest. 
not eat up." On the other hand, it is said of the just— 
Isaiah lxii. 8, ** Surely I will no more give thy corn to be 
meat for thine enemies; and the sons of the stranger shall 
not drink thy wine.” (4) All are ealled to labour: the 


idle are denied bread—2 Thess. iii. 10, “If any would 
not work, neither should he eat." (5) He that refuseth to 
labour is punished with eternal punishment—Ps. lxxii. 5 
(Vulg.), ** They are not in the labour of men, neither shall 
they be scourged like other men ;" but with the demons. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted that the labour of 
toil of sin is of five kinds. (1) Of covetousness—Eccles. iv. 8, 
« Yet is there no end of all his labour; neither is his eye 
satisfied with riches;" Prov. xxiii. 4, * Labour not to be 
rich.” (2) Of pride—‘ What profit hath he that hath 
laboured for the wind?” The wind is pride. (3) Of luxury— 
Eecles. ix 9, * Live joyfully with the wife whom thou lovest 
all the days of the life of thy vanity ........ . That is thy por- 
tion in this life, and in thy labour which thou takest under the 
sun. (4) Of sorceries—Isaiah xlvii. 12, “Stand now with 
thine enchantments, and with the multitude of thy sorceries, 
wherein thou hast laboured from thy youth." (5) Of glut- 
tony—Eccles. vi. 7, * All the labour of man is for his 
mouth, and yet the appetite is not filled." What he may eat, 
and drink, and enjoy of his labour; so does the glutton speak. 

III. On the third head it is be noted of the labour 
of Gehenna, that thrée particulars are to be noted. (1) 
Its immensity—Lam. iii. 5, ** He hath compassed me with 
gall and travail.” (2) Its bitterness—Eccles. x. 15, **'The 
labour of the foolish wearieth every one of them." (8) 
Its duration—Ps. xlviii. 9, 10, ‘Shall labour for ever, and 
shall live unto the end.” From which labour may the 
Lord deliver us. 


“The fowls of the air devoured it."—;S. Luke viii. 5. 

By the fowls of the air, are understood evil spirits; by the 
sea, righteousness; whence three points arise from the 
mystical expositions. Firstly, the quickness of the evil 
spirit to do evil—‘ birds ;” secondly, their natural dignity— 
* of the air,” or of heaven; thirdly, the iniquity of their sin 
—“ devoured it.” 

I. On the first head it is to be noted that evil spirits are 

compared to birds for three reasons. (1) Their high flight; 


the evil spirits ly on high—Numb. xxiv. 21, “ Thou puttest 
thy nest in a rock.” (2) For their quickness of flight— 
Lam. iv. 19, “ Our persecutors are mightier than the eagles 
of the heaven.” (3) In their rapacity they live by devour- 
ing the souls that they have seized—Ezek. xvii. 3, ** A great 
eagle with great wings, long-winged, full of feathers, took 
the branch of the cedar. He cropped off the top of his 
young twigs.” 

II. On the second head it is to be noted that the birds of 
the air are called evil spirits from their natural dignity, 
which consists of three things. (1) Of origin; for they 
were created in the high heavens. (2) Of lightness or 
subtlety. Of these two—lIsa. xiv. 12-14, “ How art thou 
fallen, O Lucifer, Son of the Morning ......... I will be like 
the Most High.” His origin is pointed out, in that he is said 
to have fallen from Heaven, for he was created in Heaven. 
The name Lucifer signifies lightness and beauty of nature. 
(3) Of habitation on high—Eph. vi. 12, “Spiritual wicked- 
ness in high places.” 

III. On the third head it is to be noted that the iniquity 
of the evil spirits consists in their devouring three kinds of 
seeds. (1) Seed of the Word of God—*« The seed is the 
Word of God;" S. Luke viii. 12, * Then cometh the Devil 
and taketh away the Word out of their hearts." (2) Seed 
of righteousness—2 Cor. ix. 6, * He who soweth sparingly 
shall reap also sparingly,” &c. (3) Seed of any good work 
—Ps. cxxvi. 6, ‘‘ He that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing 
precious seed, shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, 
bearing his sheaves with him.” We sow this seed whenever 
we do good. Of (1), The evil spirits take away the seed of 
the Word of God by sowing error in the mind of man—2 
Cor. iv. 4, *In whom the god of this world hath blinded 
the minds of them that believe not, lest the light of the 
glorious Gospel of Christ, Who is the Image of God, should 
shine unto them.” Of (2), They take away the seed of 
righteousness by enticing men into unrighteousness—S. John 
viii. 44, ** Ye are of your father the Devil, the lust of your 
father ye will do.” Of (3), The Devil takes away the seed 
of good works, at the same time that he makes men to glory 
in them—S, Matt. vi. 1, 2, “ Take heed that ye do not your 
alms before men to be seen of them. When thou dost thine 
alms, do not sound à trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites 



do ......... that they may have glory of men ......... They 
have their reward.” Whence it is manifest that the seed 
must be guarded from the ** birds of the air," from the evil 
spirits, that it may bring forth fruit an hundredfold, which 
fruit is the joy of eternity. To which may we be brought. 



"Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not 
charity," &c.—1 Cor. xiii. 1. 

In this Epistle we are invited to the exercise of charity, 
and it is manifoldly commended to us chiefly for five 
reasons. Firstly, for its preciousness—“ Charity, which 
name signifies what is dear and precious." Secondly, the 
loss in its absence—** I am become as sounding brass," &oc. 
Thirdly, its value in this present life—** Charity suffereth 
long, and is kind." Fourthly, its eternity—‘ Charity never 
faileth.”  Fifthly, its dignity—‘* The greatest of these is 
charity." Now mention the first two points. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted that charity is precious 
on four accounts. (1) It can only come from One, and it 
must be given by the highest good—Rom. v. 5, * The love 
of God is shed abroad in. our hearts by the Holy Ghost.” 
(2) It belongs only to the good. S. Austin says, ** Charity 
is a peculiar fountain; a stranger does not communicate with 
it.” (3) Possessing it, all good things are possessed. S. 
Austin says, * Mark, how great & good is charity, which 
being absent renders all other good things vain, but he to 
whom it is present has all things. (4) The possessor of 
charity is most dear to God, for it is of that nature that they 
who possess it are called dear, whence the Lord calls those 
living in charity the most beloved—Cant. v. 1, * Eat, O 
friends; drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted that the absence 
of charity entails a threefold loss, as the Apostle here points 
out. (1) The best part of our nature is wasted—‘ I am 
become as sounding brass." In time the brass is worn away 
by giving out the sound, just as the rational creature without 


charity is consumed by vices. S. Austin says in the “ City 
of God," ** If we were not of & good nature we should not 
be harmed by vices; for what harm can they do us save to 
‘deprive us of integrity, beauty, salvation, and peace?” (2) 
The soul without charity, being separated from God, dies— 
* I am nothing"—that is, I am dead, I am separated from 
the truth, without which man is dead; 1 S. John iii. 14, 
* He that loveth not his brother abideth in death." (8) 
Every work without charity is rendered useless—‘ Though 
I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, though I give my 
body to be burned." S. Ambrose declares that he who has 
not charity lacks all good. From which state may we be 

“ A certain blind than sat by the way-side."—8S. Luke xviii. 85. 

Mora tty, by the blind man the sinner is understood— 
Zeph. i. 17, **'They shall walk like blind men, because they 
have sinned against the Lord." As the blind does not see 
bodily, so the sinner does not see spiritually. Firstly, there 
are seven causes which hinder the bodily sight, which repre- 
sent the seven mortal sins which produce spiritual blindness. 
Secondly, there are seven things which produce mental illu- 

I. On the first head it is to be noted that the seven causes 
of blindness and the seven sins are—(1) A swelling of the 
face, and this is pride; S. Austin says, ‘‘ My face is swollen 
so greatly that it does not suffer me to see.” (2) A darkness 
in the air: this is envy, whence the envious are spoken of 
as being blind—Wisd. ii. 21, “Their own malice blinded 
them." It is also said of the envy of the Jews—1 Sam. xviii. 
9, ** Saul eyed David from that day forward." (8) A de- 
rangement of the eyes: this is anger—Ps. xxxi. 9, ** Mine 
eye is consumed with grief, yea, my soul and my belly." (4) 
Dust or anything that falls into the eye: this is avarice. 
Dust is of those temporal things which darken—S. Austin 
says, ‘I wandered after temporal things, and I was blinded." 


(5) A closing of the eyes, for no one can see who closes his 
eyes, or does not wish to open them: and this is a weaken- 
ing, for the weakened from slothfilness alone is not able to 
open his intellectual eyes to behold spiritual good. Betius 
says that the wicked accustom their eyes to darkness, they 
‘turn them away from the light of truth; they are like those 
birds who see at night, but who are blind by day. (6) The 
.gathering round the eyes of blood and humour: this is glut- 
tony—Prov. xxiii. 29, * Who hath redness of eyes? They 
that tarry long at the wine;" even according to the letter, 
-the spiritual and bodily eyes are both darkened by an excess 
-of wine. (7) The shadow of little spots, for occasionally a 
.small spot or nubercula is formed in the eye and produces 
‘blindness: thisisluxury. S. Austin said, “Small cloudy spots 
"were coming up from the wine of carnal concupiscence, and 
they darkened my heart that the sincerity of love could not 
‘be distinguished from the darkness of lust. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted that the spiritual 
‘sight consists also of seven graces. (1) Of faith—S. Luke 
xviii. 42, “ Receive thy sight: thy faith hath saved thee." S. 
Austin, * Faith is the illumination of the mind, the means 
‘by which it is enlightened from the First Light to behold 
spiritual blessings.” (2) Of humility—S. John ix. 39, ‘ For 
judgment I am come into this world, that they which see 
not might see:” these are humble who think that they see 
not. (9) Of present trial and bitterness—Tobit vi. 9, **'The 
gall is good for anointing the eyes in which there is a little 
white speck.” (4) Of love of one’s neighbour—Rev. x. 18, 
**Eye-salve, that thou mayest see.” (5) Abundance of 
tears: this is illustrated by he who, being born blind, went 
and washed in the pool of Siloam—S. John ix. 7, ** He went 
his way therefore and washed, and came seeing.” (6) Of 
fervent prayer—S. Matt. xx. 31, “ Cried out, saying, Have 
mercy on us, O Lord, thou Son of David. ...... So Jesus had 
compassion on them, and touched their eyes, and immediately 
their eyes received sight.” (7) Of the reverential hearing 
of Holy Scripture—Isa. xxix. 18, “In that day shall the 
deaf hear the words of the book, and the eyes of the blind 
shall see out of obscurity and out of darkness.” 

London: Church Press Company, 13, Burleigh-street, Strand. 









“Behold now is the accepted time: behold now is the day of salva- 
tion.”—2 Cor. vi. 2. 

Two subjects for consideration are indicated in these words 
—firstly, a commendation of the present time, ** Behold now 
is the accepted time;" secondly, the cause of this commen- 
dation is added, ‘ Behold now is the day of salvation.” 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that the present time 
is called an * acceptable time," for eight reasons—(1) Be- 
cause it is the time for seeking the Lord: Hos. x. 12, “It is 
time to seek the Lord, till He come and rain righteousness 
upon you." (2) Because it is a time for reconciling the 
Lord: Ps. lxix. 13, * My prayer is unto Thee, O Lord, in 
an acceptable time." (3) Because it is a time for correcting 
our ways: Heb. ix. 10, * Until the time of reformation"— 
i.e., of the injustice of the Jews. (4) Because it is a time 
for restraining superfluities and vices: Cant. ii. 12 (Vulg.), 
*'The time of pruning is come.” (5) Because it is the time 
of receiving the Divine compassion: Ps, cii. 13, “For the 
time to favour her, yea the set time, is come.” (6) Because 
it is the time for suffering tribulation: Jer. xxx. 7, “It is 
even the time of Jacob’s trouble; but he shall be saved out 
of it.” (7) Because it is the time of acquiring salvation : 
Ecclus. iv. 28, ** Refrain not to speak in the time of salva- 
tion.” (8) Because it is a time for doing good: Ps. cxix. 
126, “ It is time for Thee, Lord, to work." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that this “ day of 
salvation” exhorts and invites us by eight ways to holiness-— 
(1) The Holy Scriptures, which are read at this time, The 
Gospels and Epistles which are read invite us to prayer, to 

B 2 


fasting, to almsgiving, to just dealing, to repentance, and to 
other things of this sort, so that he must be indeed insensible 
who does not now do good. (2) The Creator invites us, 
Who is believed at this time to have made the world; so 
that he would be greatly neglectful who did not perform 
some good act for God, when He has made so many good 
things for us. (3) The creature invites us to this, which in 
the time of winter ceased from work, and now begins to be 
active again, as is seen in herbs, plants, and animals: Jer. 
viii. 7, * The stork in the heaven knoweth her appointed 
times”—i.e., for building, &c. (4) The example of Christ 
invites us to well-doing, Who at this time wrought many good 
things for us: S. Bernard, * Who made me altogether and at 
once by a word, in regenerating me; Who said many things, 
and did many miracles, and endured hardships.” (5) The ordi- 
nation of the Church invites us all to confession, and fast- 
ing, and frequenting of the church; whence he who does 
not do these things breaks the precepts of Mother Church: 
Prov. i. 8, ** Forsake not the law of thy Mother.” (6) The 
incitement and habits of many, for now many begin to per- 
form good works; so that a man ought to be ashamed to 
remain alone with the few: Heb. xii. 1, **Seeing we also 
are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, 
let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so 
easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is 
set before us.” (7) The abundant forming, out of Divine 
grace; for it is to be believed that God, Who bestowed so 
many good things upon us, in these days pours out more 
abundantly His grace upon us: whence it is read in the 
Epistle, “ that ye receive not the grace of God in vain." 
(8) The expectation of the great Easter ought to exhort us 
to good, for he who expects a great festival ought to make a 
great vigil, wherefore the Church now sings, * It is not for 
nought that we rise in the morning before the light, because 
the Lord promised the Crown to the watchers ;” and again, 
* We expect to receive the Body of Christ, which none 
ought to receive unless purged: 1 Cor. xi. 28, ‘Let a man 
examine himself, and so let him eat of that Bread and drink 
of that Cup.’ Whence so by worthily celebrating the 
Lenten fast at the present time we shall come to Horeb, the 
Mount of God—to the heavenly Supper of the Gospel—to 
which,” &c. | 


* When He had fasted forty days and forty nights, He was afterward an 
hungered.”—Matt. iv. 2. 

S. AUGUSTINE says that it is the highest religion to imitate 
what we worship, so that, when Our Lord fasted, we ought 
to imitate Him in fasting. There are four reasons which 
ought to move us to fasting—firstly, the command of God; 
secondly, the example of Christ; thirdly, the manifold harm 
which befals those who do not fast; fourthly, the manifold 
benefits which come to them from fasting. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that the Lord com- 
manded us to fast in a fourfold manner—(1) By Himself, to 
Adam and Eve in Paradise, when He commanded that they 
should fast—/.e., abstain from the tree of knowledge of good 
and evil, and eat it not. (2) He commanded it by the Law 
of Moses: Lev. xvi. 31, “It shall be a Sabbath of rest 
unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls by a statute for ever.” 
(3) God commanded it by the Prophets: Joel ii. 15, 
* Sanctify a fast.” (4) God commanded it by the Apostles : 
2 Cor. xi. 27, “In hunger and thirst, in fastings often"— 
whence he is a manifest transgressor of the precepts of grace 
who is unwilling to fast. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that Our Lord 
taught us that there were four things necessary in fasting— 
(1) That we should be cleansed from allsin. (2) That we 
should conceal our fasting from the applause of men. (3) 
That we should fast with long-suffering and perseverance. 
(4) That we should overcome the temptations of the Devil. 
The first He taught in this, that He fasted when He was 
baptized ; so also he who wishes to fast well ought first to 
be cleansed by penitence and confession: S. Matt. vi. 17, 
* But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine head and wash 
thy face.” The second He taught because He sought the 
desert when about to fast; whence He showed to us that 
when we fast and do good works we must hide ourselves 
from the praises of men: S. Matt. vi. 16, “ When ye fast, 


be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance ......... that 
thou appear not unto men to fast." "The third He taught in 
this, that He fasted forty days and forty nights: S. Austin, 
* Subdue your flesh with abstinence from meat and drink as 
far as your health will permit." The fourth He taught in 
this, that He did not give way to the temptation of the 
Devil: ** Man shall not live by bread alone ......... Get thee 
hence, Satan;” Ecclus. ii. l, * Son, when thou comest to 
the service of God ......... prepare thy soul for temptation." 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that four evils 
come upon those who are unwilling to fast when they ought 
—(1) The evil of iniquity: Ezek. xvi. 49, ** Behold, this 
was the iniquity of thy sister Sodom, pride, fulness of 
bread." (2) The evil of loss, for he who is not willing to 
fast will have to fast for ever from the fruit of eternal life; 
and this is indicated in Gen. iii. 17, where it is re- 
corded that Adam would not abstain from the forbidden 
fruit; wherefore the Lord said, * Now, lest he put 
forth his hand and take also of the tree of life ......... 
the Lord God sent him forth from the Garden of Eden." 
(3) The evil of present punishment: Ecclus. xxxvii. 34, 
“ By surfeiting many have perished.” (4) The evil of the 
punishment of perpetual hunger and thirst in the lower 
world: Isa. lxv. 13, ** Behold, My servants shall eat, but ye 
shall be hungry: behold, My servants shall drink, but ye 
shall be thirsty”—which relates to the * heavenly feast,” 
from which they who do not fast now, but “fare sump- 
tuously every day, shall not havea drop of water even’ ' (see 
S. Luke xvi. 19-24). 

IV. On the fourth head it is to be noted, that a fourfold 
profit flows from fasting—(1) The mortification of vices. 
(2) An elevation of the mind towards God. (3) The 
acquisition of virtue. (4) The reward of eternal blessed- 
ness. Of these four S. Gregory says: “If thou represseth 
vices by bodily fasting,” behold the first; ‘ thou elevatest 
the mind,” behold the second; ‘thou increaseth virtue,” 
behold the third; ‘thou grantest rewards," behold the 


“We beseech you, brethren, and exhort you by the Lord Jesus, that as 
ye have received from us how ye ought to walk and to please God,” 
&c.—1 Thess. iv. 1. 

Tse Apostle exhorts in this Epistle to five things. Firstly, 
that we should study to walk according to God: ** How ye walk." Secondly, that we may be pleasing to God: 
*'To please God.” Thirdly, as holy: ** Your sanctification.” 
Fourthly, that we should do no injury to our neighbour: 
“That no man go beyond and defraud.”  Fifthly, that we 
should avoid sins of sensuality : * Ye should abstain from 

I. On the first head it is be noted, that the Apostle taught 
us twelve ways of walking; five of them will be mentioned 
here, and the rest in Homily V. for the Third Sunday in 
Lent—(1) In humility, lest inflated with pride we are not 
able to pass up the narrow way. (2) In patience, that we 
may bear cheerful the toils and the misfortunes of the way. 
(3) In meekness, that we may have companions on our way, 
and may not perturb them in the journey. (4) In charity, 
that we may communicate good words to our companions. 
(9) In compassion, that we may help the infirmities of the 
saints. Of these five, Eph. iv. 1, 2, “ That ye walk worthy of 
the vocation, with all lowliness,” behold the first; ** Long 
suffering,” behold the second; **Meekness," behold the 
third; **Forbearing one another," behold the fourth ; * In 
love, " behold the fifth. 

IL. On the second head it is to be noted, that five things 
are needful for us to please God. (1) That we should fear 
Him above all as omnipotent and just. (2) That we should 
hope in Him above all, as if in a liberator. Of these two, 
Ps. exlvii. 11, “The Lord taketh pleasure in them that fear 
Him," behold the first; ‘In those that hope in His mercy,” 
behold the second. (3) That we should /ove Him above all, as 
our highest good : Prov. viii. 17, **Ilove them that love Me.” 
(4) That we shall sustain tribulations willingly for His sake : 
Judith viii. 23, ‘ All that pleased God passed through many 


tribulations, remaining faithful.” (5) That for His sake we 
should despise fleshly delights, and live after the Spirit: 
Rom. viii. 8, 9, **'T'hey that are in the flesh cannot please 
God. But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit," &c. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that we ought to 
seek to be holy for five reasons—v.e., be made clean. (1) 
That we may become like Ged: 1 S. Pet. i. 16, “Be ye 
holy, for Iam holy." (2) Lest we should do injury to Christ, 
Who cleansed us with such great toil and cost: Apoc. i. 5, 
* Loved us, and washed us from our sins in His Own Blood." 
(3) Lest we should be prevented from entering the Heavenly 
City: Apoc. xxi. 27, **'There shall in no wise enter into it 
anything that defileth." (4) That we may be made capable 
of receiving wisdom: Wisd. vii. 27, ** Conveyeth herself 
into holy seuls ; she maketh the friends of God and prophets.” 
(5) That we may be worthy to see God: S. Matt. v. 8, 
* Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God,” 
which vision Christ has procured for us. 

[Note, S. Thomas has not treated of the fourth head, and for the fifth 
he refers to Hemily V. for the Third Sunday in Lent.] 


THE SECOND Sunpay iw Lent.—(FRoM THE GosPEL.) 
“ My daughter is grievously vexed with a devil.”—S. Matt. xv. 22. 

Mora tty by this demoniac is understood a sinful soul, 
and here are noted two evils which a man acquires through 
deadly sin. The first is, that he is possessed by a devil; the 
second is, that he is grievously vexed. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that a sinful soul 
possesses seven devils. (1) An immoderate desire of know- 
ledge, this a noon-day devil: Ps. xci. 6 (Vulg.), “ The noon- 
day devil.” (2) An immoderate avarice for possession ; this 
is the dumb devil: S. Luke xi. 14, “He was casting out a 
devil, and it was dumb." (3) The ambition of ruling; this 
devil is Asmodeus by name: Tobit iii. 8, * A devil named 

Asmodeus had killed them." Asmodeus is interpreted of 
: him about to make judgment ; and it signifies ambition, which 
desires to possess the power of judging men who are to 
be judged by God. (4) The delight of carnal pleasures ; 
this is the blind devil: §. Matt. xii. 22, ‘ Then was brought 
unto Him one possessed with a devil, blind and dumb." 
This is carnal concupiscence, which blinds the eyes of the 
mind: S. Austin, ‘‘ Clouds were ascending from the slimy 
eoncupiscence of the flesh, and they overclouded and 
darkened my soul; so that the sincerity of love could 
not be distinguished from the blackness of lust." (5) The 
cruelty of doing harm; this is the fierce devil: S. Matt. 
viii. 22, **'There met Him two possessed with devils coming 
out of the tombs, exceeding fierce." (6) The malignity of 
detracting ; of this, Apoc. xvi. 13, “I saw three unclean 
spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon.” 
By the frog is understood the loquacity of detraction, 
for there are three ways of detraction. The first is 
the undervaluing blessings; the second is exaggerating 
evils; the third is imputing false crimes. (7) Desperation, 
which is the seventh devil, from which flows all evils; this 
devil is called * legion," because in a state of desperation 
many devils enter into the mind: S. Matt. v. 9, ** What is 
thy name? And he answered, saying, My name is Legion, 
for we are many." Of these seven devils: S. Luke viii. 2, 
* Mary called Magdalene, out of whom went seven devils." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that these devils 
vex the man whom they possess in seven ways. (1) By 
blinding him. (2) Depriving him of speech; of these two: 
S. Matt. xii. 22, ** One possessed with a devil, blind and 
dumb." (3) They vex by kindling the flame of desire. (4) 
By drowning in the water of luxury. (5) By altering the 
revolution of changing things; of these three: S. Matt. 
xvii. 15, ** Lord, have mercy on my son, for he is lunatic and 
sore vexed ; for ofttimes he falleth into the fire, and oft into 
the water." The sinner is called a lunatic, since like the 
moon (luna) he increases and decreases at certain seasons, 
and often falls into the fire of lust and into the water of 
luxury. (6) He afflicts with the cold of his spiritual ones 
by wearing the clothing of virtues: S. Luke viii. 27, * There 
met Him a certain man which had devils a long time, and 
ware no clothes.” (7) He vexes with the griefs and 


anguishes which sinners often suffer by inflicting upon them- 
selves: S. Matt. v. 2, 5, “ There met Him out of the tombs a 
man with an unclean spirit ......... cutting himself with 
stones.” Jer. ii. 19, * See, that it is an evil and bitter thing 
that thou hast forsaken the Lord thy God," &c. 

Five things are noted of this woman of Canaan which 
availed for the liberation of this demoniac. (1) Humility: 
* Yet the dogs eat." (2) Her patience, since she patiently 
endured the seeming reproaches of Our Lord. (3) Her 
prayer, * Have mercy on me, O Lord." (4) Her persever- 
ance: she did not cease asking till she obtained what she 
desired. (5) Her faith: “O woman, great is thy faith.” 
If we had had these five qualities we should be delivered 
from every devil, that is, from all sin; which may Christ 
grant us to be. Amen. 

“ Walk as children of the light."— Eph. v. 8. 

THE Apostle, in these words, lays down three points for 
consideration. Firstly, he exhorts to walking: * walk.” 
Secondly, the manner of walking: “as children.” Thirdly, 
He assigns a cause “of the light,” for light is the means of 
walking: S. John xii. 35, “ Walk while ye have the light." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that man has a four- 
fold walk. (1) Of nature, by walking according to which 
a man hastens towards death: Job. xvi. 22, * I shall go 
the way whence I shall not return.” (2) Of sin, by walk- 
ing according to which a man passes on from sin to sin: 
Ps. xii. 8, ** The wicked walk on every side." (3) Of grace, 
by walking according to which a man goes on from good to 
better: Gen. xvii. 1, ** Walk before Me, and be thou per- 
fect.” (4) Of glory, according to which the holy walk who 
are following Christ: Apoc. iii. 4, “They shall walk with 
Me in white, for$they are worthy." The first is to be en- 
dured, the second to be avoided, the third to be acted upon, 


the fourth to be desired. "The Apostle exhorts to the third : 
Eph. iv. 7, ** I beseech you that ye walk worthy." 

II. On the second head is to be noted the manner of walk- 
ing, of which the Apostle mentions twelve ways; five of 
which were explained in Homily III., for the second Sunday 
in Lent, and seven remain to be considered here. It is 
known that we ought to walk “in newness of life"—(1) 
Casting away our formersin: Rom. vi. 4, ** We also should 
walk in newness of life." (2) Subjecting the flesh to the 
Spirit, and living according to the Spirit: Gal. v. 16, 
* Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the 
flesh.” (8) In love, loving God and one's neighbours: Eph. 
v. 2, * Walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us." (4) 
Honestly, having a good conversation amongst men: 1 Thess. 
iv. 12, “ Walk honestly toward them that are without." (5) In 
wisdom, edifying others by sweet and profitable words : Coloss. 
iv. 5, “ Walk in wisdom toward them that are without." (6) 
In Christ, by following and imitating Him: Coloss. ii. 6, 
** As ye have, therefore, received Christ Jesus the Lord, so 
walk in Him." (7) We ought to walk in the light, as doing 
nothing worthy of reproof: S. John xi. 9, “If any man 
walk in the day he stumbleth not." The holy walk in these 
seven paths, but the wicked in seven other ways—(1) Ac- 
cording to the flesh, in fulfilling its desires: 2 S. Peter ii. 10, 
“Them that walk after the flesh in the lust of uncleanness." 
(2) According to the course of this world: Eph. ii. 2, 
s Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of 
this world." (3) In vanity, by loving the things which are 
vain: Eph. iv. 17, * As other Gentiles walk in the vanity 
of their mind." (4) In living inordinately, and dishonestly, 
and dissolutely : 2 Thess. iii. 6, ‘Withdraw yourselves 
from every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after 
the tradition which he received of us." (5) In fulfilling 
whatsoever desires they list. (6) By living luxuriantly 
in lasciviousness. (7) In gluttonies, revellings, and the 
like. Of these three: 1 S. Pet. iv. 3, “So have wrought the 
will of the Gentiles when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, 
excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, and abominable 
idolatries.” Those who so walk, perish: Job. vi. 18, ** The 
paths of their way are turned aside; they go to nothing, and 
perish ;" whilst they who walk after the former ways come 
to the joy of eternal life, which may Christgive us. Amen. 


* He was casting out a devil, and it was dumb.”—-S. Luke xi. 14. 

In these words, concerning the casting out of this devil, 
is signified the casting out of the devil from the heart, and 
they teach three things. Firstly, the frequency of the cast- 
ing out: * And He was casting out,” whence it is implied 
that He did frequently cast them out. Secondly, the wicked- 
ness of him who was cast out: “ and he was dumb.” Thirdly, 
the profitableness of this casting out: ** When the devil was 
gone out the dumb spake.” 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that the Lord 
frequently cast out a devil—(1) In casting him out from 
Heaven: Ezek. xxviii. 16, “ I will cast thee as profane out 
of the mountain of God.” Apoc. xii. 9, * The great dragon 
was cast out.” (2) He cast him out of Paradise when 
cursing him: Gen. iii. 14, * Because thou hast done this 
thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the 
earth." (3) He cast him from a mount when He repelled 
him: S. Matt. iv. 10, ** Get thee hence, Satan.” (4) Casting 
him out from the souls in driving him from them: Acts x. 
38, “ Who went about doing good, and. healing all that were 
oppressed of the devil" (5) He cast him out from the 
bodies of the sick when He healed them: S. Luke iv. 41, 
* Devils also came out of many.” (6) He cast him out from 
the world, delivering it from his power: S. John xii. 31, 
* Now shall the prince of this world be cast out." (7) He 
cast him into hell, consigning him to eternal fires: Isa. 
xiv. 15, ‘Thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides 
of the pit." 

II. On th¥ second head it is to be noted, that a threefold 
evil came upon the sick man from the devil, signifying the 
threefold evil which comes from sin. The first was, because 
the devil possessed him ; the second, because he made him 
blind; the third, because he deprived him of the power of 
speech. That man had these three miseries, because he was 
a demoniac, was blind, and was dumb; they signify three 
evils which flow from sin—(1) He was possessed by the 


devil: 2 S. Tim. ii. 26, “ That they may recover themselves 
out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him 
at his will" (2) He was made blind: Zeph. i. 17, ** They 
shall walk like blind men because they have sinned against 
the Lord.” (3) He was made dumb, so that he could neither 
praise God nor confess his sins: Isa. lvi. 10, ** They are all 
dumb dogs; they cannot bark." 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that three bless- 
ings follow the casting out of the devil—first, the liberation 
from his possession ; second, the restitution of sight; third, 
the restoration of speech; and these signify the three good 
things which happen to a soul in justification—(1) That the 
soul is delivered from the power of the devil: Coloss. i. 13, 
*« Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness." (2) 
That the light of grace is restored to it: Ps. cxlvi. 8, “The 
Lord openeth the eyes of the blind." (3) That speech is 
given, by which sin may be confessed and God may be 
praised: Ps. li., * Deliver me from blood-guiltiness, O God" 
—i.e., from sins—“ and my tongue shall sing aloud of Thy 




“But Jerusalem which is above is free.” — Gal. iv. 26. 

In these words, the City of God, which rulesin Heaven, is 
commended on three accounts. Firstly, for situation: 
“which is above." Secondly, for its name: “Jerusalem.” 
Thirdly, for its liberty: ‘is free." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that for four 
reasons it is commended as being **above"—4(1) For purity : 
uncleannesses are not “above,” but reach down into the 
vallies. In this celestial city there is nothing unclean: 
Apoc. xxi. 27, * There shall in no wise enter into it any- 
thing that defileth." (2) For health: for that which is placed 
* above" is healthy ; so is this celestial city, where there is 


neither pain nor death: Apoc. xxi. 4, “There shall be no 
more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there 
be any more pain." (3) For safety, for the city placed 
“ above" is the more secure: Ps. xxxi. 21, * He hath showed 
me His marvellous kindness in a strong city." (4) For 
spaciousness; for the earth which is below is, as it were, a 
point in the sphere, but the heavens are the circumference: 
S. Austin, *But do you marvel that the breadth of the 
heavens are not limited by narrow boundaries? From the 
extreme boundary of Spain to the streets of this city, the 
. Space which intervenes is compassed in a very few days, if 
the wind carries the ship; whilst that celestial region takes 
the swiftest star a journey of thirty years to reach it." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that inasmuch as 
the city is named Jerusalem, it is to be commended for many 
reasons; for many things are spoken of Jerusalem in Scrip- 
ture which must be understood of the heavenly Jerusalem. 
Ten qualities are here noticed—(1) Its wonderful beauty 
and fairness: Cant. vi. 3, * Thou art beautiful, O my love, 
as Tirzah, comely as Jerusalem." (2) Its inexpressible love 
and charity: Isa. xxxi. 9, * The Lord, Whose fire is in 
Zion and His furnace in Jerusalem." (8) The delightful 
splendour of its brightness: Tobit xiii. 13, * Jerusalem, City 
of God, ...... Thou shalt shine with a glorious light, and all 
the ends of the earth shall worship thee." (4) The splen- 
dour of its walls, streets, and gates: Tobit xiii. 21, ** The 
gates of Jerusalem shall be built of sapphire and emerald, 
and all the walls thereof round about of precious stones. All 
its streets shall be paved with white and clean stones." (5) 
Its abundance of all things: Isa. xxxiii. 20, Vulg., ** Their 
eyes shall see Jerusalem a rich habitation." (6) The affluence 
of all delights: Isa. lxvi. 10, 11, ** Rejoice ye with Jerusalem, 
and be glad with her, all ye that love her: rejoice with joy 
for her, ...... be delighted with the abundance of her glory." 
(7) Its perpetual and continual joy: Isa. lxv. 18, “I create 
Jerusalem a rejoicing.” (8) Its eternal honour and glory: 
Isa. lx. 1, Vulg., “ Arise, be enlightened, O Jerusalem ; for 
thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon 
thee.” (9) The happiness of eternal peace: Isa. Ixvi. 12, 
* Behold I will extend peace to her like a river.” (10) The 
eternal happiness of blessed light : Tobit xiii. 22, ** Alleluia 
shall be sung in its streets." 


III. On the third head it is to be noted, that there will be 
deliverance there from five evils—(1) From the vexation of 
demons : Isa. xiv. 3, “ And it shall come to pass in that day 
that the Lord shall give thee rest-from thy sorrow, and from 
thy fear, and from the hard bondage." (2) From tbe afflic- 
tion of all evil: Tobit xiii. 19, “The Lord our God hath 
delivered Jerusalem His city from all her troubles." (3) From 
the corruption of the creature: Rom. viii. 21, ** The creature 
itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption." 

4) From the death of the body: Rom. vii. 24, 25, “ Who 
shall deliver me from the body of this death? I thank God 
through Jesus Christ our Lord." (5) Liberty from the ser- 
vitude of sin: S. John viii. 36, “If the Son therefore shall 
make you free, ye shall be free indeed." Blessed, therefore, 
is that city where there is no evil, where all is good. To 
which good may we be brought, &c. 


4 Jesus went over the sea of Galilee.” —S. John vi. 1. 

THERE are three things especially in this Gospel which 
Jesus is said to have done. Firstly, He * went over the 
sea.” Secondly, He ascended into à mountain: ** went up 
into a mountain.” Thirdly, He fed multitudes: ‘“ Jesus took 
bread," &c. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that Jesus did three 
things in connection with the sea—(1) He calmed it. (2) 
He walked upon it with dry feet. : (3) He went over it. 
These three things Christ did in the world: Ps. civ. 25, 
*'This great and wide sea." (1) Christ calmed the world 
in reconciling it with God the Father. (2) Walking over 
the world with dry feet, by loving nothing earthly. (3) He 
went over the world, ascending into heaven. Of the first: 
2 Cor. v. 19, ** God was in Christ, reconciling the world 
unto Himself.” Of the second: S. John xiv. 30, “ The 
prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing in Me." Of 


the third: S. John xvi. 28, * I leave the world and go to the 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that in the Gospels 
it is recorded that Christ did seven things on the mountain— 
(1) On it He overcame the Devil. (2) On it He preached 
to His disciples. (3) He was transfigured on the mount. (4) 
On it He prayed frequently. (5) On it He appeared to His 
disciples. (6) On it He fed the multitude. (7) From it He 
‘ascended into heaven. Of the first: S. Matt. iv. 8, **'The 
Devil taketh Him up into an exceeding high mountain." Of 
the second: S. Matt. v. 1, “Seeing the multitudes, He went 
up into a mountain, and when He was set His disciples came 
unto Him.” Of the third: S. Matt. xvii. 1, 2, * Jesus taketh 
Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up 
into an high mountain apart, and was transfigured before 
them.” Of the fourth: S. Matt. xiv. 23, “He went up into 
a mountain apart to pray.” Of the fifth: S. Matt. xxviii. 16, 
“ The eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a moun- 
tain where Jesus had appointed them.” Of the sixth: S. 
John vi. 3, 11, “ Jesus went up into a mountain ...... Jesus 
took the loaves.” And of the seventh: S. Luke xxiv. 50, 
** He led them forth as far as Bethany, and He lifted up His 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that in two 
villages the Lord fed the multitudes with twelve loaves, and 
these twelve signify the breads with which He feeds those 
who follow Him in the way—(1) of charity, (2) joy, (3) 
peace, (4) long-suffering, (5) gentleness, (6) goodness, (7) 
faith, (8) meekness, (9) temperance, (10) modesty, (11) con- 
tinence, (12) chastity. "These are the twelve breads of pro- 
pitiation of which it is spoken: Exod. xxv. 30, “Thou shalt 
set upon a table shew-bread before Me alway.” Of all 
these: Gal. v. 22, 23, “But the fruit of the spirit is love, 
joy, peace,” &c. 



PassroN SUNDAY, or Firtra SUNDAY IN Lent.—(F ROM THE 

“ How much more shall the Blood of Christ, Who through the Eternal 
Spirit,” &c.— Heb. ix. 14. 

Tre Apostle points out especially four things in this 
Epistle. Firstly, he shows Christ to have been an High 
Priest : * Christ being come, an High Priest ;" secondly, He 
commends His High Priesthood : ** of good things to come ;" 
thirdly, He shews what He offered: “ offered Himself with- 
out spot to God ;” fourthly, He points out the profit or effect 
of His oblation : ‘“ purge your conscience," &c. 

On this last head it is to be noted, that the Blood of Christ 
purchased seven benefits for us. (1) Cleansing from our 
sins and defilement: Apoc. i. 5, ‘ Unto Him that loved us, 
and washed us from our sins in His Own Blood.” Heb. 
xiii. 12, ** Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people with 
His Own Blood.” (2) Ourredemption: Apoc. v. 9, ** And 
hast redeemed us to God by Thy Blood.” 1 S. Peter i. 18, 
19, ** Ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, &c. ; 
but with the precious Blood of Christ." (3) Our peace- 
making with God and the angels: Coloss. i. 20, * Having 
made peace through the Blood of His Cross." (4) Confirma- 
tion of the testament of the eternal inheritance: 1 Cor. xi. 
25, “ This Cup is the New Testament in My Blood." (5) A. 
drinking and inebriation to the consumers: S. Matt. xxvi. 
27, 28, “ Drink ye all of it; for thisis My Blood of the New 
Testament," &c. Deut. xxxii. 14, “Thou didst drink the 
pure blood of the grape." (6) The opening of the door of 
Heaven: Heb. x. 19, * Having ...... ... boldness to enter 
into the holiest by the Blood of Jesus”—+i.e., His continual 
prayerto God for us; for His Blood cries daily for us to 
the Father. Heb. xii. 24, ** The Blood of sprinkling, that 
speaketh better things than that of Abel." The blood of Abel 
calls for vengeance; the Blood of Christ demands pardon. 
(7) The deliverance of the saints from Hades: Zech. ix. 11, 
“By the blood of thy covenant I have sent forth thy pri- 
soners out of the pit wherein is no water.” From which, &c. 




Passion SUNDAY, OR FirrH SUNDAY IN Lent. — (FROM 

“ He that is of God heareth God’s words."——S. John viii. 47. 

. IN these words four things are noted. Firstly, the great 
glory of the saints: * He that is of God.” For what can 
be more glorious than to be of God? S. John i. 12, ** He 
gave power to become the sons of God." Secondly, their 
great wisdom: **Heareth God's words." Psalm xix. 7, 
“The testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the 
simple.” Thirdly, the foolishness of the reprobate: * there- 
fore ye hear them not, because ye are not of God.” For 
fools despise the wisdom of right dogma, and the doctrine of 
pure conversation, as the Pharisees did the words and works 
of Christ. Fourthly, their great misery: “ are not of God.” 
What can be more unhappy than not to be of God? Hosea 
vii. 18, “ Woe unto them! for they have fled from Me.” 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that in three ways 
the saints are to be of God. (1) By creation, as an effect 
from acause: Rom. xi. 36, “ For of Him, and through Him, 
and to Him are all things.” (2) By justification, as the splen- 
dour from light: Ephes. v. 8, ** Ye were sometimes darkness, 
but now light in the Lord." 1 S. John iii. 9, ** Whosoever is 
born of God doth not commit sin." (3) By imitation or 
assimilation, as a copy from a pattern: 1 S. John ii. 5, 
* Whoso keepeth His Word, in him verily is the love of God 
perfected : surely know we that we are in Him. He that 
saith he abideth in Him, ought himself also to walk even as 
He walked." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the Word of 
God which the saints willingly hear is threefold. (1) Eter- 
nal: S. John i. 1, ** In the beginning was the Word." (2) 
Mental: Job iv. 12, ** A thing [word, Vulg.] was secretly 
brought to me." (3) Vocal: S. Matt. iv. 4, “ Man shall not 
live by bread, &c., but by every word that proceedeth," &c. 
The first they hear by faith: S. John xi. 25, “He that 
believeth in Me, though he were dead, yet shall he live." 
The second by inspiration: Psalm lxxxv. 8, **I will hear 

19 . 

what God the Lord will speak." The third, by preaching: 
S. Luke viii. 8, * He that hath ears to hear, let him hear." 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that they are 
foolish who do not hear the Word of God, chiefly for two 
reasons —4(1) Because from the hearing of the Word of God 
all evil is avoided. (2) All good is gained. Of these two: 
Prov. i. 33, * But whoso hearkeneth unto Me shall dwell 
safely"—4.1.e., because in this life they shall be terrified with 
no adversaries, and at death will be made joyful by the 
entering into eternal life; “and shall be quiet from fear of 
evil.” In the present, abundance of blessed works, all fear 
of those who can kill the body being removed ; in the future, 
abundance of joys, fear being taken away of any defect or 

IV. On the fourth head it is to be noted, that the great 
miseries which flow from the not * being of God" arise 
from two causes—(1) They who are without God have all 
evil: S. Augustine, ** Whence I know, that it is evil to me 
without Thee; not alone without, but also within myself; 
and all abundance which is not God, is need. (2) He who 
is of God has everything which is best: S. Augustine, * He 
who enters into the joy of his Lord, and is secure, will also 
find himself to have the best of the best." 


“Who, being in the form of God," &e.— Philipp. ii. 6. 

THE Apostle in this Epistle treats of three things—firstly,. 
of the Majesty of Christ, ** Who being in the form of God ;" 
secondly, of His humility, ** made Himself of no reputation ;” 
thirdly, of the advantage of His humility, ** Wherefore God 
also hath highly exalted Him."  . 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that the Majesty of 
Christ is revealed in three attributes—(1) In His Divinity, 
* Who being in the form of God;” for if He was Deity in. 

c 2 


the form of God, He was therefore God: Acts x. 36, *Preach- 
ing peace by Jesus Christ; He is Lord of all." (2) In shewing 
the power of His Divinity, * Thought it not robbery," &c. 
—.e.. He was God in truth and not by rapine, as the Devil 
wished to be: Rom. ix. 5, “Of whom as concerning the 
flesh Christ came, Who is over all, God blessed for ever ;” 
true God. (3) In revealing His eternity, **' To be equal with 
God :” S. John i. 1, “ In the beginning was the Word,” &c. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that His humility 
appears in three ways—(1) In the reception of the form of 
a servant: “He made Himself of no reputation, and took 
upon Him the form of a servant," &c. (2) In the exhibi- 
tion of perfect obedience, * became obedient:" S. John vi. 
88, ^I came down from heaven not to do Mine own will, 
but the will of Him that sent Me," &c. (3) In the endurance 
of a most degraded death, **Unto death:" Wisd. ii. 20, 
* Let us condemn Him to a most shameful death." 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that His exaltation 
was the gain of His humility. After His death He appeared 
exalted above all creatures: ** Wherefore God also hath 
highly exalted Him." The Apostle makes a threefold 
exaltation—(1) In comparison with the angels, “ that at the 
Name of Jesus every knee should bow of things in heaven,” 
&c.: Heb. i. 6, “ Let all the angels of God worship Him.” 
(2) In comparison or in the deeds of men, “ things in earth :” 
Rom. vii. 29, “That He might be the first-born among 
many brethren.” (3) In comparison of the demons: Heb. 
ii 14, * That through death He might destroy him that had 
the powerof death, that is the Devil." S. Augustine, ** The 
hand nerveless and affixed to the Cross overcame the powers 
of the air." Christ by His death subjected to Himself 
devils, men, and angels: Heb. ii. 8, **'Thou hast put all 
things in subjection under His feet ......... He left nothing 
that is not put under Him." He who wishes to be saved 
must so learn at first to be humbled: S. Luke xiv. 11, “ He 
that humbleth himself shall be exalted.” Job xxii. 29, 
Vulg., * He that hath been humbled shall be in glory." To 
which may we be brought, &c. 


“And they crucified Him.”—S, AMatthew xxvii. 35. 

WE ought to consider three things concerning the Passion 
of the Lord—firstly, its nature; secondly, its power; thirdly, 
its benefit. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that the Passion of 
Christ was very bitter for three reasons—(1) On account of 
the goodness of Him suffering. (2) On account of the 
indignity of His Passion. (3) On account of the cruelty of 
those carrying out the sentence. ‘The goodness of Him suffer- 
ing is manifest from three circumstances—Firstly, because 
He harmed no one: 1 S. Peter ii. 22, * Who did no sin.” 
Secondly, because He most patiently sustained the injuries 
laid upon Him: 1 S. Peter ii. 23, * Who, when He was 
reviled, reviled not again ;" Jer. xi. 19, “I was like a lamb 
or an ox that is brought to the slaughter."  Thirdly, He 
was doing good to all: Acts x. 88, “ Who went about doing 
good;" S. John x. 32, * Many good works have I shewed 
you from My Father." The indignity of His Death is mani- 
fest from three things—Firstly, he was judged, which was 
the most wicked of all: S. Luke xxiii. 21, ** But they cried, 
saying, Crucify Him, crucify Him.” Secondly, because of 
the many indignities which He suffered: S. Matt. xxvii. 27- 
30, ** Gathered unto Him the whole band of soldiers. And 
they stripped Him, and put on Him a scarlet robe. And 
when they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it upon 
His head, and a reed in His right hand ...... And they spit 
upon Iim.” Thirdly, because He was condemned to a 
most shameful death : Wisd. ii. 20, * Let us condemn Him 
to a most shameful death." The cruelty of those who crucified 
Him is seen from three things—Firstly, very cruelly flagel- 
lated Him before death: S. Matt. xxvii. 26, ** When he had 
scourged Jesus, he delivered Him to be crucified.” Secondly, 
in giving Him at the point of death vinegar and hyssop to 
drink: S. John xix. 29, ** They filled a spunge with vinegar, 
and put it upon hyssop, and put it to His mouth ;" Ps. lxix., 
“In My thirst they gave Me vinegar to drink." Thirdly, 


in wounding Him even after death: S. John xix. 34, ‘ One 
of the soldiers with a spear pierced His side." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the power of 
His Passion appeared in three things—(1) In heaven; it 
took away the light from it, S. Luke xxiii. 44, 45, **'There 
was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. 
And the sun was darkened.” (2) In earth, for it trembled, 
S. Matt. xxvii. 51, “The earth did quake and the rocks 
rent.” (3) In Hades, who delivered up its dead, S. Matt. 
xxvii. 52, * Many bodies of the Saints which slept arose." 
The heavens declare the power of the Passion of Christ; 
the earth proclaims it; Hades announced it. Phil. ii. 8, 9, 
* Obedient unto death ...... That at the Name of Jesus every 
knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, 
and things under the earth.” 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that the benefit of 
the Passion extended to inhabitants of heaven, earth, and 
hell. By the Passion of Christ the heavenly ones' were 
recruited; earthly men were liberated from the hand of the 
Devil; and the holy fathers who were in Hades, were de- 
livered from that place. Of the first, Coloss. i. 20, “To 
reconcile all things unto Himself by Him, whether things 
in earth or things in heaven." Of the second, S. John xii. 
81, *Now is the judgment of this world; now shall the 
princes of this world be cast out;" Coloss. ii. 15, ** Having 
spoiled principalities and powers.” Of the third, Zech. ix. 
11, * I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit wherein 
is no water.” 



Easter Day.—(F Rom THE ANTHEM.) 

“Christ Our Passover is sacrified for us: therefore let us keep the 
feast."—1 Cor. v. T. 

Our Lord Jesus Christ in a threefold manner showed Him- 
self to us in eating. Firstly, sacramentally: S. Matt. xxvi. 
26, 27, ** Take, eat ; this is My Body," &c. Secondly, spiri- 
tually : * For what hast thou designed teeth and stomach? 
Believe, and thou hast eaten" (S. Austin). Thirdly, eternally : 
“There Thou wilt satiate me of thee with a wonderful 
satiety" (S. Austin). According to this, He made to us a 
threefold Paschal Feast—(1) bodily; (2) spiritual; (3) 
eternal. 'These three mystical Passovers were those which 
the children of Israel celebrated—the first in the Exodus 
from Egypt (Ex. xii. 21 e£ seg.) ; the second in the desert 
(Numb. ix. 3-5); the third in the land of promise (Jos. v. 
10) For the celebrating of the first Passover, in which we 
eat a Lamb without blemish, sacrified for all, the Apostle in 
this epistle shows five things to be necessary—(1) That we 
should be cleansed from carnal concupiscence: * Purge out, 
therefore, the old leaven.” The “old leaven" is carnal 
concupiscence, which from our first parent begun to corrupt 
the lump of human nature: 1 Cor. v. 6, “A little leaven 
leaveneth the whole lump." (2) That we may be cleansed 
from pride: ** Neither with the leaven of malice.” Malice 
is another term to express pride, which is the beginning of 
all malice: Ecclus. x. 15, “ Pride is the beginning of every 
sin.” (8) That we may be cleansed from an evil covetous- 
ness, * And wickedness.”  Covetousness is called wicked- 
ness because it desires that which is not; for all love the 
riches of the world, which they can never obtain: Ecclus. x. 
10, ** Nothing is more wicked than to love money.” (4) A 
eleansing of the heart is necessary, But with the unleavened 


bread of sincerity.” For he who wishes to celebrate this 
solemn Passover ought himself to be most cleansed: 
Numb. xvii. 11, * Everyone that is clean in thy house 
shall eat of it." (5) Truth of life is necessary: Ephes. iv. 
15, “And of truth,” “speaking the truth in love.” He who 
wishes, therefore, to celebrate this ineffable Passover must 
be purged from the sin of carnal concupiscence, and of 
avarice, and of pride; and must be delighted in purity of 
mind, in truth of life, and will come to that Passover which 
does not follow the Lenten fast, but will be there a per- 
petual and eternal solemnity. To which may Jesus Our God 
bring us. Amen. 


Easter Day.—(F ROM THE GOSPEL.) 
“ He must rise again from the dead.”—S. John xx. 9. 

In these words five things are to be noted. Firstly, the 
infinite goodness of Our Lord Jesus Christ. Secondly, Hia 
delightful beauty. Thirdly, His wonderful love. Fourthly, 
the joyful solemnity of God. Fifthly, the fervent charity of 
the women. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, the goodness of 
Jesus; for Jesus is interpreted Saviour, since He wished to 
die that He might save by His death, and show His infinite 
goodness. Truly today for three reasons the Saviour appeared, 
—(1) Because He saved us today from those demons whom 
He despoiled today: Coloss. ii. 15, * Having spoiled princi- 
palities and powers, He made a show of them openly." 
(2) Because today He saved us from death, which He van- 
quished today: “ Hath overcome death," &c. (Collect). 
1 Cor. xv. 54, “Death is swallowed up in victory." For 
today Christ vietoriously rose, having conquered death. 
(8) Because He saved us from hell, which he unchained, 
today: Ps. cvii. 16, * He hath broken the gates of brass, 
and eut the bars of iron in sunder." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, the beauty of Him 
Who rose, which is expressed by the word Nazarene as 
applied to Christ, which signifies a flower among flowers whose 

beauty remains: Cant.ii.1, “I am the Rose of Sharon 


and the Lily of the valley." But there were in Christ three 
kinds of flowers—(1) red flowers, (2) black, (3) white. The 
red flowers are drops of blood; the black, the stripes of the 
wounds; the white, the splendours of the glorified Body. 
Of the third and first, Cant. v. 10, * My Beloved is white 
and ruddy." Of the second, 1 S. Pet. ii. 24, ** By Whose 
Stripes ye were healed." Jesus was altogether blooming, 
because girt with roses—that is, with drops of blood; 
adorned with violets—that is, with the stripes of wounds; 
entrenched with lilies—that is, with the splendours of the 
glorified Body: Cant. ii. 12, “The flowers appear on the 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, the charity of 
Him rising again “from the dead:” S. Matt. xxviii. 5, 
“Jesus Who was crucified.” The death of Christ was such 
an inestimable love of charity as no mere man was able to 
conceive of: Eph. iii. 18, * The Love of Christ which 
passeth knowledge." S. John xv. 18, * Greater love hath no 
man than this." For three reasons especially He wished to 
die the death of the Cross—(1) That He might show mani- 
festly to all that He both truly died, and from this death 
truly rose again. For it was patent to all that He was 
really dead when the Cross raised on high showed Him, on 
it, dead: Acts x. 39, “ And we are witnesses of all things 
which He did. ............ Whom they slew and hanged on 
a tree.” (2) That as the Tree had produced the fruit of 
death, so the Tree having produced the fruit of this life 
might quicken all: * Who by the wood of the Cross wrought 
salvation for the human race" (S. Greg. Mag.) (3) That 
as the Devil had overcome man by the Tree, so He might 
similarly, by the Tree, triumph. 

IV. On the fourth head is to be noted, the festivity of this 
present day: S. Matt. xxviii. 6, ** He must rise again," ** He 
is risen.” The Resurrection of the Lord has made for us 
this day of solemnity and joy: Ps. exviii. 24, **'This is the 
day which the Lord hath made; we will rejoice and be 
glad in it.” Three events have made this day to be solemn 
—(1) The sending of an Angel from Heaven: S. Matt. 
xxvii. 2, “The Angel of the Lord by descending from 
Heaven." (2) The earth, by leaping for joy : S. Matt. xxviii. 
2, “There was a great earthquake." (3) Hell, by restoring 
the Saints: S. Matt. xxvii. 52, 53, ** Many bodies of the 
Saints which slept arose and came out of the graves.” So 


that the heavens, the earth, and Hades all finished their testi- 
mony to the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. 

V. On the fifth head is to be noted, the devoted love of 
the women : S. Matt. xxviii. 5, ** Cometh Mary Magdalene ;" 
“Ye seek Jesus.” These holy women teach us to seek 
Jesus according to His own promise, if we wish to find 
Him. Jesus is to be sought for in a threefold manner— 
firstly, in faith ; secondly, in hope; thirdly, in charity. (1) 
Reasonably he seeks Him by faith, who seeks the light of 
His truth. (2) Earnestly he seeks Him in hope, who looks 
for the glory of His Majesty. (3) Fervently they seek Him 
in charity, who long for the sweetness of His goodness. 
These are the three Marys who came to the sepulchre. O 
Lord Jesus ! make us to seek 'Thee and to find Thee. Amen. 



“ There are three that bear witness in earth, the spirit, the water, and 
| the blood."—1 S. John v. 8. 

IT is necessary that we should believe Christ to be the true 
God and true Man, and He therefore wished to furnish us 
with many testimonies that He was God and Man. We 
have both—.e., the testimony of His Divinity, as above, 
* There are three that bear record in Heaven.” Of the 
testimony of His humanity He says here, “There are three 
that bear witness on earth." The heavenly witnesses which 
Christ had to His Divinity are twelve—(1) The Father, (2) 
the Son, (3) the Holy Ghost, (4) the working of miracles, 
(5) the saints, (6) the angels, (7) the heavens, (8) the air, 
(9) the water, (10) the earth, (11) Hades, (12) the fire. 
The earthly witnesses which S. John gives here to His 
humanity, in which chiefly His love to us appears, are three 
—first, the effusion of blood; secondly, the emanation of 
water; thirdly, the emission of the spirit. Of the first two: 
S. John xix. 34, * Forthwith came there out blood and 
water.” Of the third: S. Matt. xxvii. 50, ** Jesus, when 
He had cried again with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost.” 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that the Lord 


Jesus gave to us a threefold water—(1) The water of Bap- 
tism for the cleansing of sins: Ezek. xxxvi. 25, '* Then 
will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean." 
(2) The water of wisdom for the extinction of spiritual 
thirst: Ecclus. xv. 3, “ And give him the water of whole- 
some wisdom to drink.” S. John iv. 14, “ Whosoever 

drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never 

thirst." S. Austin says, that “if anyone has drank of the 
water of Paradise—of which one drop is larger than the 
ocean—-it results that the thirst of earthly desire would be 
extinguished in him." (3) Therefreshing water of the Holy 
Spirit: S. John vii. 37-89, *If any man thirst, let him 
come unto Me and drink. But this spake He of the Spirit." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that by the 
shedding of blood seven benefits were wrought for us (see 
Lenten Homily IX. for Passion Sunday, p. 17). 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that He breathed 
forth His Spirit for three ends—(1) That He might quicken 
us: S. John x. 15, *I lay down My life for the sheep." 
(2) That He might deliver the saints from hell. 'The soul 
of Christ, with His Divinity, descended into hell, and 
delivered the saints who were there at that time: Zech. ix. 
11, “I have sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit wherein 
is no water.” (8) That He might give us an example of 
laying down our lives. For whosoever desires to follow 
Christ, ought entirely to surrender his life: S. Luke ix. 23, 
* If any man will come after Me." 2 Cor. v. 15, “ He died 
for all, that they who live should not henceforth live unto 
themselves, but unto Him Who died for them.” He who so 
dies will come to that life in which no one dies; to which 
life may Christ, Who is our life, bring us. 

* Peace be unto you." —S. John xx. 19. 

IN this Gospel is mentioned that threefold peace which 
the Lord brought to His Disciples for the purpose of showing 
that for three reasons it is necessary for us. Firstly, peace 
with God: S. John xvi. 33, “In Me ye might have pearse. 


in the world ye shall have tribulation.” Secondly, peace in 
ourselves: Job. v. 24, ** Thou shalt know that thy tabernacle 
shall be in peace.” S. Bernard, “ Peace to you is peace 
by you; and whatever seems to threaten without, you shall 
not fear, because it will not harm.” Thirdly, peace with 
our neighbours is necessary: Rom. xii. 18, * As much as 
lieth in you, live peaceably with all men." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that peace with God 
implies three conditions—(1) That God must be feared: 
Ecclus. i. 22, “ The fear of the Lord is a crown of wisdom, 
filling up peace and the fruit of salvation." Again, Ecclus. 
i. 27, “The fear of the Lord driveth out sin." (2) That 
God must be hoped in: Isai. xxvi. 3, ** Thou wilt keep him 
in perfect peace whose mind is stayed on Thee." (3) That 
the commands of God must be obeyed: Isai. xlviii. 18, “ O 
that thou hadst hearkened to. My commandments! then had 
thy peace been as a river." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that three things 
are needful if a man would have peace with himself—(1) 
That he should submit himself wholly to God : Job. xxii. 
21, 22, “ Acquaint now thyself with Him and be at peace; 
esf lay up His words in thine heart.” (2) That he 
should ever guard his good-will: S. Luke ii. 14, ** On earth 
peace, good-willtowards men." (3) That he should regulate 
every motion of the mind and body according to wisdom: 
Rom. viii. 6, Vulg., “ The wisdom of the spirit is life and 
peace.” S. Matt. v. 9, ‘Blessed are the peacemakers.” 
Gloss., * The peacemakers are all who order the motions of 
the mind and subject them to reason, and who do not dis- 
agree in these things." 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that three things 
are necessary to the man who desires to be in peace with his 
neighbour—(1) That he should do those things which are 
pleasing to God: Prov. xvi 7, *When a man's ways 
please the Lord, He maketh even his enemies to be at peace 
with him." (2) That he should do no injury to anyone: 
2 Cor. vi. 3, “ Giving no offence;" and Ps. cxix. 165, 
“ Great peace have they who love Thy law." It is the law 
of God that the things which we are unwilling should be done 
to us, we should not do to others; but that which we should 
wish to be done to us, that we should do to others. (3) 
That we should show kindness to all: Rom. ii. 10, “ Glory, 
honour, and peace to every man that worketh good. 


IV. On the fourth head it is to be noted, that there are 
three things which chiefly destroy peace—(1) Pride: Job 
ix. 4, Vulg., “ Who hath resisted Him and hath had 
peace?” (2) Anger: Ecclus. xxviii. 11, “A passionate 
man kindleth strife, and a sinful man will trouble his friends, 
and bring a debate in the midst of them that are at peace." 
(3) Any kind of iniquity: Isai. xlviii. 22, * There is no 
peace, saith the Lord, unto the wicked." He who desires 
in this present life to have peace with God, with himself, 
with his neighbour, and the peace of eternity for the future, 
must avoid these three stumbling-blocks ; to which peace 
may we be led, &c. Amen. 



“Christ also suffered for us, leaving us an example that we should 
follow His steps."—1 S. Peter ii. 21. 

Five things are noted in this Epistle—firstly, the inno- 
cence of Our Lord, * Who did no sin ;" secondly, His great 
patience, ‘“ When He suffered, threatened not;" thirdly, 
His inexpressible charity, * Who His own self bear our 
sins in His own Body ; fourthly, the manifold benefits flow- 
ing from these three, * By Whose stripes ye were healed ;” 
fifthly, the steps in which we should follow Christ. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that His innocence 
is shown in three ways—(1) Because he did no sin: Heb. 
vii, 26, * Holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners.” 
(2) Because He never deceived: ** Neither was guile found in 
His mouth." 2 Cor.i. 19, 20, * The Son of God, Jesus 
Christ ........ . was not yea and nay, but in Him was yea. 
For all the promises of God in Him are yea, and in Him 
Amen." (3) Because He never did any injury to anyone: 
* Who, when He was reviled, reviled not again." Isa. liii. 7, 
* As a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so He openeth 
not His mouth.” 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that His patience 
in His Passion is shewn in three ways—(1) In that He 
voluntarily offered Himself: “Committed Himself to Him 
that judgeth righteously.” Isa. liii. 7 (Vulg), “ We waa 


offered because it was His own will.” (2) Because, un- 
justly judged, He endured it with the greatest patience. It 
requires the greatest patience to sustain an unjust sen- 
tence: S. John x. 32, “ Many good works have I shewed 
you ...... for which of those works do ye stone Me?" 
1 S. Pet. ii. 19, ** This is thankworthy, if a man for conscience 
toward God endure grief, suffering wrongfully.” (3) Because 
He did not utter threats against His crucifiers: * When He 
suffered He threatened not." Jer. xi. 19, “But I was like a 
lamb ...... that is brought to the slaughter." He prayed 
for them: Isa. liii. 12, ** Made intercession for the trans- 
gressors," that they should not perish. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that the inexpres- 
sible charity of Christ is shown in three ways—(1) Because 
He Himself bore our sins: S. John i. 29, “ Behold the 
Lamb of God, Who taketh away the sins of the world." 
(2) In the manner of His Oblation: “ In his own Body." 
Isa. liii. 5, “He was wounded for our iniquities,” &c. 
(3) Because He sustained so cruel a death for the taking 
away of our sins: “On the Tree”—1i.e., the Cross. Phil. 
li. 8, ** Obedient unto death, even the death of the Cross." 

IV. On the fourth head it is to be noted, that the death of 
Christ procured for us a threefold benefit—(1) It freed us 
from the guilt of sin: “ We being dead to sins.” $. Peter 
ii. 14, * Who gave Himself for us that He might redeem us 
from alliniquity," &c. (2) He restored to us the gift of 
grace: ‘Should live unto righteousness.” Rom. v.19, “ By 
the obedience of the One shall many be made righteous." 
S. John i. 15, “Of His fulness have all we received, and 
grace for grace.” (3) It delivered us from corruption: * By 
Whose stripes ye were healed." Isa. liii. 4, ‘ Surely He hath 
borne our griefs and carried our sorrows.” 

V. On the fifth head it is to be noted, that the steps in 
which we should follow Him are three—(1) In the purity of 
innocence: Lev. xi. 44, * Ye shall be holy, for I am holy.” 
S. Matt. v. 8, ** Blessed are the pure in heart." 1 S. Peter 
i. 15, * Be ye holy in all manner of conversation." (2) In 
the firmness of patience: S. Luke iv. 19, “In your patience 
possess ye your souls.” Heb. xii. 3, “Consider Him that 
endured such contradiction of sinners against Himself, lest 
ye be wearied and faint in your minds.” (3) In charity: 
1 S. John iii. 11, ‘ This is the commandment that ye heard 
from the beginning, that we should love one another.” 


Job xxiii. 11, * My foot hath held His steps: His way have 
I kept.” He who so follows Him in these steps shall come 
to the joy of eternal blessedness: S. John viii. 12, ** He that 
followeth Me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the 
light of life;" to which may Christ Himself, the Light and 
the Life, bring us. Amen. 

“The Good Shepherd giveth His life for the sheep.”—S. John x. 11. 

In these words three things are to be noted—firstly, the 
great goodness of Our Lord Jesus Christ, ** Iam the Good 
Shepherd ;” secondly, His great love, “I lay down my life ;” 
thirdly, the holiness and goodness of His elect, “for the 

I On the first head it is to be noted, that there are three 
reasons why Christ is called the ** Good Shepherd," since 
His office is threefold—(1) to defend the sheep; (2) to lead 
and feed them in good pastures; (3) to restore those who 
are wandering. So Our Lord Jesus Christ, firstly, defends 
His sheep (1) from lions, i.e., devils; (2) from wolves, i.e., 
tyrants; (3) from bears, t.e., heretics: Ezek. xxxiv. 8, 10, 
* Surely because My flock became a prey, and My flock 
became meat to every beast of the field ...... I will deliver 
My flock from their mouth ;" S. John x. 28, ‘They shall 
never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of My 
hand." Secondly, Christ feeds all His sheep in the meadow 
of scriptural grace and glory: Ezek. xxxiv. 14, “I will feed 
them in a good pasture, and upon the high mountains of 
Israel shall their fold be ...... In a fat pasture they shall 
feed upon the mountains of Israel" Thirdly, He will 
restore those who are wandering: S. Luke xv. 4, “ What 
man of you having an hundred sheep." Ezek. xxxiv. 16, 
* T will seek that which was lost, and bring again that which 
was driven away." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that Christ gave 
three things for us, in which His great love for us is seen, 
(1) Food for the body: S. Matt. xxvi. 26, “Take, eat, this is 


My Body.” (2) His Blood to drink: S. Matt. xxvi. 27, 28, 
“Drink ye all of it; for this is My Blood.” (8) His soul 
as the price of our "redemption: 1 S. John iii. 16, * Hereby 
perceive we the love of God, because He laid down His life 
for us.” S. John x. 15, “I lay down My life for the sheep." 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that there are 
three effects of goodness. (1) To harm no one: 2 Cor. vi. 3, 
* Giving no offence in anything." (2) To bear injuries 
patiently : Rom. xii. 17, * Recompense to no man evil for 

. evil" (3) To give self or substance willingly for others: 

1 S. John iii. 16, ** We ought to lay down our lives for tbe 
brethren.” It is for these three reasons that the sheep are 
called holy—as injuring no one, as suffering evil cheerfully, 
and as giving up themselves and their possessions for the use 
of men ; and they who are so the sheep shall doubtless come 
to the fold of Christ, which is the Kingdom of Heaven : S. 
Matt. xxv. 33, 34, ‘He shall set the sheep on His right 
hand .. . Come, ye blessed of My Father, inherit the 
kingdom," p To which kingdom may we be brought. 



“T beseech you as Men aud de abstain from fleshly lusts,"— 
eter ii. 11. 

Four things are noted in these words. Firstly, abstinence 
from fleshly lusts is pointed out, “abstain from fleshly lusts.” 
Secondly, the necessity for such abstinence, “which war 
against the soul.” Thirdly, honest conversation is enjoined, 
* having your conversation honest.” Fourthly, the benefit 
of a good conversation is added, “ that whereas they speak 
against you as evildoers, they may by your good: works, 
which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of visita- 
tion. 99 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that there are three 
kinds of lusts from which the Scripture commands us to 
abstain. (1) Worldly lusts. (2) Hurtful and unprofitable 
lusts. (3) Carnal lusts. Firstly, the lusts of the world are 
the desires of worldly honours: Titus ii. 11, 12, “The 
of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men, 


teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts," &c. 
Secondly, hurtful lusts are the desires of riches: 1 S. Tim. 
vi. 9, ** But they that will be rich fall into temptation and 
a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts,” &c. 
Thirdly, the lusts of the flesh are when fleshly delights are 
longed for: Rom. xiii. 14, * Make not provision for the flesh 
to fulfil the lusts thereof. » 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that fleshly lusts 
in three ways “ war against the soul,” and therefore it is 
needful for us to abstain from them. () They war against 
by ever fighting against it: Job vii. 1, Vulg., **'The life of 
man upon earth:is a warfare;" the whole life of man is 
like a certain conflict. (2) Mortally, in wounding it: Prov. 
xxi. 25, *.The desire of the slothful killeth him, for his 
hands refuse to labour." (3) By inflicting eternal perdition 
and destruction: 1 Tim. vi. 9, ** Hurtful lusts, which drown 
men in destruction and perdition ;" for fleshly desires kill by 
sin here, and in the future, kill with eternal death. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that a good con- 
versation consists in three things. (1) In purity of mind: 
2 Cor. i. 12, “ For our rejoicing is this, the testimony of our 
conscience, that in simplicity and godly sincerity ...... we 
had our conversation in the world." (2) In honesty or 
holiness of manners: 2 Pet. iii. 11, * Seeing then that all 
these things shall be dissolved, what manner of persons ought 
ye to be in all holy conversation and godliness.” (8) In 
perpetual avidity of the joys of heaven: Philipp. iii. 2, **Our 
conversation is in heaven." 

IV. On the fourth head it is to be noted, that a threefold 
benefit follows a good conversation. (1) The refutation or 
silencing of detractors, * That whereas they speak against 
you:" 1S. Pet. ii. 15, “So is the will of God, that with 
well doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish 
men." (2) The being had in honour, ‘ By your good works, 
which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of visita- 
tion :" S. Matt. v. 16, * Let your light so shine before men," 
&c. (3) The great reward promised to their conversation, 
* in the day of visitation," z.¢., in the time of retribution ; 
and God alone knows how great the glory then to be given 
iM us. To which glory may we be led by Jesus Christ. 


34 : 


“Tho world shall rejoice, and ye shall be sorrowful, hut your sorrow 
shall be turned into joy.”—S, John xvi. 20. 

Turze things are noted in these words. Firstly, the foolish- 
ness of the worldly, **The world willrejoice:" Eecles.ii.2, “I 
said of laughter, It is mad: and of mirth, What doeth it?” 
Secondly, the wisdom of the saints: ** Ye shall be sorrow- 
ful:" Eccles. vii. 4, *‘ The heart of the wise is in the house of 
mourning: but the heart of fools is in the house of mirth.” 
Thirdly, the future song of the saints, ** Your sorrow shall 
be turned into joy:" S. Luke vi. 21, ** Blessed are ye that 
weep now, for ye shall laugh." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that three things shew 
the joy of the worldly to be foolish—(1) The time, for the 
present is not the time of rejoicing but of weeping: Eccles. 
iii. 4, ** A time to weep and a time to laugh." "The time of 
weeping is put first, to indicate that the present is this 
time, a time to laugh is added afterwards to signify that the 
future will be the time of joy; for now, indeed, is the time 
of weeping and of mourning over sins. (2) That this world 
is a place of sadness, and not of joy : Ps. Ixxxiii. 6, 7, Vulg., 
** In his heart he hath disposed to ascend by steps in a vale 
of tears, in the place which he hath set." Judg. ii. 1, “ An 
angel of the Lord came up from Gilgal to Bochim,” i.e., the 
* place of weepers." (3) They joy in evil: Prov. ii. 14, 
* Who rejoice to do evil." The foolishness of the joy of the 
worldly is sufficiently manifest, since they rejoice in a time of . 
sadness, in a place of misery, in the doing evil. S. Austin, 
« What is the joy of this world? say briefly, unchasteness, 
worthlessness, consideringly to cheat, to do that which is 
base, to be gorged with feasting." 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the wise are 
sad for three reasons—(1) By sadness the evil of man is cor- 
rected: Eccles. vii. 3, ** By the sadness of the countenance 
the heart is made better.” (2) By momentary sadness man 
escapes eternal torment. S.Greg. Mag., “The Saints regard 
this present life as a gain, because by this they know that they 
will not escape eternal life ;” Nahum i. 13, “ I have afflicted 
thee, I will afflict thee no more.” (8) By a mean measure of 
justice they acquire eternal joys: 2 Cor. iv. 17, 18, ** For 


our light affliction which is but for a moment worketh 
for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory. 
While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the 
things which are not seen." 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that the future 
joys of the saints are said to consist of three things—(1) In 
the consolation of the Divine Presence: “I will see you 
again." S. Augustine, “ Lastly, there will be God Himself, 
Who will be all in all, Who will be to us salvation, honour, 
and glory, and joy, and every good:” Gen. xv. l, “I am 
-O.thy exceeding great reward.” (2) In the highest exul- 
tation of heart, * Your heart shall rejoice:" Isa. xxxv. 10, 
“ They shall obtain joy and gladness.” (3) In the attaining 
of eternity: Isa. xxxv. 10, “The ransomed of the Lord 
shall return, and come to Zion with songs and everlasting 
joy upon their heads ;" to which joy, &c. 


* Let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak.”—S. James i. 19. 


In these words the Apostle S. James bids us be more slow 
in speaking than in hearing, and these considerations ought 
to move us to this—Firstly, the testimony of nature. Se- 
condly, the harm of much speaking. Thirdly, the benefit of 
little speaking. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that nature teaches 
us in a threefold way that we should rather hear, than speak. 
(1) Nature gave to man a double instrument of hearing, 
and only a single instrument of speaking, and this in 
itself shows, that in a twofold degree man ought rather to 
hear than to speak. (2) Nature gave to very many animals 
the faculty of hearing, but not the faculty of speech save to 
the rational animal, man; so that speech ought to be rational: 
Coloss. iv. 6, “Let your speech be alway with grace, 
seasoned with salt." (3) Nature gave the instruments of 
bearing ever open, but the instruments of speech she closed 
by two barriers or protections: for man has his ears ever open, 
but his tongue closed in by his lips and teeth. The tongue is 
like an evil monarch, and therefore God enclosed it with 
many barriers: Mich. vii. 5, ** Keep the doors of thy mouth.” 


II. On the second head it is to be noted, that a threefold 
evil comes through much speaking—(1) The evil of sin: 
Prov. x. 19, “ In the multitude of words there wanteth not 
sin.” (2) The evil of punishment: Ecclus. xx. 8, ** He that 
useth many words shall hurt his own soul." (3) The evil of 
infamy: Prov. xviii. 13, ‘‘ He that answereth a matter before 
he heareth it, it is folly and shame unto him.” Of these 
three: S. James iii. 6, ** The tongue is a world of iniquity;" 
behold the first. ‘‘The tongue is an unruly evil, full of 
deadly poison;" behold the second. “The tongue among 
our members defileth the whole body ;" behold the third. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that a threefold 
advantage flows to him who hears much and uos little— 
(1) The good thing of grace: Ecclus. xxxii. 9, ‘‘ Hear in 
silence, and for thy reverence good grace shall come unto 
thee." (2) The good thing of wisdom: Ecclus. vi. 34, “If 
thou wilt incline thine ear thou shalt receive instruction, and 
if thou love to hear thou shalt be wise." (3) Happiness and 
tranquillity of mind: Prov. xxi. 21, “ Whoso keepeth his 
mouth and his tongue keepeth his soul from troubles," &c. 



" And when He is come He will reprove the world of sin, of righteous- 
ness, and of judgment.”—S. John xvi. 8. 

Iw these words three things are laid down, concerning 
which the Holy Spirit will reprove the world. Firstly, He 
will reprove of sin, because men ought not to commit it. 
Secondly, of righteousness, because men ought to perform it. 
Thirdly, of judgment, because men ought to fear it. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that sin is to be 
avoided for many reasons, but chiefly for three great evils 
which it brings to man—(1) Because it places man here in 
many miseries: Prov. xiv. 34, **Sin is a reproach to any 
people." (2) Because it deprives man of eternal glory : Isa. 
xxvi. 10, “In the land of uprightness will he deal unjustly, 
and will not behold the majesty of the Lord." (3) Because 
it leads man to eternal punishment: S. Matt. xxv. 46, 
“ These shall go away into everlasting punishment." 

IT. On the second head it is to be noted, that righteousness 


is chiefly to be followed for three reasons—(1) Because it 
places man in many joys: Ps. xix. 8, **The statutes of the 
Lord are right, rejoicing the heart." (2) Because it liberates 
man from perpetual death: Prov. xi. 4, ** But righteousness,” 
ie, the works of righteousness, **delivereth from death," 
i.e., eternal. Prov. xxi. 25, ‘“ He that followeth after righteous- 
ness and mercy findeth life." (3) Because it leads man to eter- 
nal joys: S. Matt. xxv. 46, ** The righteous into life eternal.” 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that the future 
judgment is to be feared for three reasons—(1) On account 
of the equity of the Judge: Ps. vii. 12, Vulg., * God is a 
just Judge, strong and patient: is He angry every day ?” 
(2) Because of the severity of the Judge: Judith xvi. 20, 21, 
“In the Day of Judgment He will visit them, for He will 
give fire and worms into their flesh.” (3) Because of the 
irrevocability of the sentence: S. Matt. xxv. 41, ‘* Depart 
from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the 
Devil and his angels.” It is called “everlasting fire" because 
it has no end; from which may we be delivered, &c. 


" If any man among you seem to be religious, and bridleth not his tongue, 

but deceiveth his own heart, this man's religion is vain."—5S. Jas. i. 26. 

. S. JAMES in these words exhorts us to the bridling of the 
tongue, and there are three reasons which move us so to do. 
Firstly, because he who does not bridle his tongue, falls into 
many sins. Secondly, because he incurs many bad punish- 
ments. Thirdly, because he who bridles his tongue, acquires 
many good things. Of the first: Prov. x. 19, “In the multi- 
tude of words there wanteth not sin.” Of the second: Ecclus. 
xx. 8, ** He that useth many words shall hurt his own soul.” 
Of the third: Prov. xviii. 13, “ He that answereth a matter 
before he heareth it, it is folly and shame unto him." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that Scripture treats 
of many tongues, by which are signified those different sins 
which are committed by the tongue; and such tongues are to 
be bridled—(1) The deceitful tongue, which is in double deal- 
ings and betrayals: Ps. cxx. 2, ** Deliver my soul, O Lord, 
from lying lips and from a deceitful tongue." Jer. ix. 8, 


“ Their tongue is as an arrow shot out, it speaketh deceit: 
one speaketh peaceably to his neighbour with his mouth, but 
in heart he layeth his wait.” (2) The boastful tongue, which 
is proud and arrogant: Ps. xii. 2, “ The Lord shall cut off 
all flattering lips and the tongue that speaketh proud things." 
(3) The serpent-like and poisonous tongue, which utters en- 
vies and detractions: Ps. cxl. 8, ** They have sharpened 
their tongues like a serpent, adders’ poison is under their lips." 
(4) A lying tongue, that utters perjuries, falsehoods, and 
false witnesses: Prov. vi. 16, “Six things does the Lord 
hate, a proud look, a lying tongue,” &c. (5) The bland 
tongue, which utters deceits: Prov. vi. 24, ** Keep thee from 
the evil woman, from the flattery of the tongue of a strange 
woman.” (6) The tongue of a third person, which utters 
seducements and allurements: Ecclus. xxviii. 19, ** The 
tongue of a third person hath cast out valiant women, and 
deprived them of their labour.” The first tongue is in the 
deed of sensuality of the man loving the woman ; the second, 
that of the woman loved; the third that of the herald or mes- 
senger who conveys the words of the lover to the beloved, and 
vice versa. (7) The wicked tongue, which utters flatteries : 
Prov. xvii. 4, «A wicked doer giveth heed to false lips.” 
They are false lips which do evil by inciting flatterers. (8) 
The tongue which is sword-like, which consists of things 
angry and furious, and which slays many by railings and 
reproaches : Ps. lvii. 4, *' The sons of men whose teeth are 
spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword." (9) The 
deceitful tongue, which abides in false merchants and de- 
ceivers; they deceive the simple by recommending their wares, 
and defrauding by false weights, numbers, and measures: 
Prov. xxvi. 28, Vulg, “ A deceitful tongue loveth not truth,” 
i.e., Christ; “and a slippery mouth worketh ruin," 7.e., of body 
and soul: Prov. xxi. 6, “The getting of treasures by a 
"lying tongue," i.e. in operation, “is a vanity, and tossed 
to and fro," without soul and discretion, **of them that 
seek death," £e, willingly or unwillingly. (10) Tongue 
of blasphemy, which is in those who blaspheme God 
and the saints. (11) Tongue without grace, which utters 
mockeries and derisions with those who willingly speak idle 
words: Ecclus. xx. 21, *« A man without grace is as a vain 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the man who 
does not bridle his tongue incurs many penalties—(1) Ruin: 


Prov. xii. 18, Vulg., ** For the sins of the lips ruin draweth 
nigh to the evil man.” Eccles. x. 12, “ The lips of a fool 
will swallow up himself." (2) He can have nothing pros- 
perous in this life: Ps. cxl. 11, * Let not an evil speaker be 
established in the earth." (3) Labour. (4) Sorrow: Ps. 
ix. 7, Vulg., * Under his tongue are labour and sorrow.” 
(5) Perverse destruction of him who speaks. (6) Expulsion 
from eternal life: Ps. lii. 4, 5, Thou lovest all devouring 
words, O thou deceitful tongue. God shall likewise destroy 
thee for ever." (7) The burning up of the deceitful tongue 
itself: Ps. xli. 17, Vulg., **'Their tongue hath been dry 
with thirst." (8) The torture of the evil tongue by infernal 
fire: S. Luke xvi. 24, ** Send Lazarus, that he may dip the 
tip of his finger in water and cool my tongue." (9) The 
gnawing of the tongue itself: Rev. xvi. 10, “ And they 
gnawed their tongues for pain." (10) Eternal death: Prov. 
xviii. 21, ** Death and life are in the power of the tongue"— 
i.e., in its operation or works. He who bridleth his tongue 
will have eternal life ; he who does not do this, will come 
into eternal death. (11) He will suffer every evil: Prov. 
xvii. 20, ** He that hath a perverse tongue falleth into mis- 
chief"—that is, into the evil of Gehenna. Prov. xiii. 8, 
* He that keepeth his mouth keepeth his life; but he that 
openeth wide his lips shall have destruction”—+.e., eternal. 

III. On the third it is to be noted, that three benefits arise 
from the bridling of the tongue—(1) Perfection of life: S. 
James iii. 2, “ If any man offend not in word, the same is a 
perfect man. (2) Elevation of the mind to God: Lam. iii. 
28, ** He sitteth alone and keepeth silence." (3) The gain- 
` ing of eternal life: Ps. xxxiv. 12, 13, ** What man is he that 
desireth life and loveth many days that he may see good ? 
Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from speaking 



“I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world: again I 
leave the world, and go to the Father."— S. John xvi. 28. 

Focr considerations are suggested by these words. 
Firstly, His going from the Father: *I came forth from 
the Father." His going forth from the Father was to make 
Himself visible. Secondly, His advent in the world. ** Aro 


come into the world." Thirdly, His departure from the 
world: * Again I leave the world.” Fourthly, His ascen- 
sion to the Father: “and go to the Father." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that Christ came 
forth from the Father for three reasons—(1) That He might 
manifest the Father in the world: S. John i. 18, * No man 
hath seen God at any time; the Only Begotten Son, which 
is in the bosom of the Father, He hath declared Hm." (2) 
To declare His Father's will to us: S. John xv. 15, ** All 
things that I have heard of My Father I have made known 
unto you." (3) That He might show the Father's love 
towards us: S. John iii. 16, ** God so loved the world that . 
He gave His Only Begotten Son, that whosoever believeth 
in Him," &c. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that Christ came 
into the world for three reasons—(1) To enlighten it: 
S. John viii. 12, *I am the Light of the world." (2) That 
He might reconcile it to God the Father: 2 Cor. v. 19, 
* (rod was in Christ reconciling the world unto Himself.” 
(3) To deliver it from the power of the Devil: S. John 
xii. 31, * Now is the judgment of this world : now shall the 
prince of this world be cast out." S. John iii. 17, ** God 
sent not His Son into the world to condemn the world ; but 
that the world through Him might be saved." 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that Christ left 
the world for three reasons—(1) On account of its wicked- 
ness: 1 S. John v. 19, ©The whole world lieth in wicked- 
ness.” (2) On account of the perversity of its ingratitude: 
S. John xv. 18, “If the world hate you, ye know that it 
hated Me before it hated you.” What could be greater 
ingratitude than for the world to hate Him Who came to 
save it? (3) That by leaving the world He should give us 
an example: 1 S. John ii. 15, “ Love not the world, neither 
the things that are in the world." S. John xv. 19, * Ye are 
not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world." 

IV. On the fourth head it is to be noted, that Christ 
ascended to the Father for three reasons—That he might 
intercede with Him for us: S. John xiv. 16, * I will pray 
the Father.” (2) That He might give to us the Holy Spirit: 
S. John xvi. 7, “If I go not away, the Comforter will not come 
unto you; but if I depart, I will send Him unto you." (3) 
That He might prepare for us a place with the Father: 
S. John. xiv. 2, *I go to prepare a place for you." To 
which place may He lead us. Amen. 









* We love Him because He first loved us. If a man say, I love God, and 
hateth his brother, he is a liar."—1 S. John iv. 19, 20. 

Tue Apostle S. John asserts three propositions in these 
words. Firstly, he exhorts us to love—“ We love Him.” 
Secondly, he assigns the cause of our love—‘ Because He 
first loved us.’ Thirdly, he exhorts us to the love of our 
neighbour—** If a man say, I love God, and hateth his 
brother,” &c. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted that we ought to love 
God in three ways. Firstly, that our whole heart may be 
filled with His love—Deut. vi. 5, ** And thou shalt love the 
Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul." 
Secondly, that we should love nothing except for His sake 
—S. August. “He loves Thee less, who with Thee loves 
anything else, which he loves not for Thy sake." Thirdly, 
that no enemy should turn us away from His love—Rom. 
viii. 35, “ Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? 
Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution," &c. 

II. On the second head is to be noted that there are three 
reasons why we ought chiefly to love God. (1) On account 
of His goodness—S. Bern., ** Good is the cause of our loving 

B 2 


God. For so great is the goodness of God, that if He never 
had done or never will do any good to man, nevertheless he 
ought ever to love Him.” (2) On account of His love—as in 
text, ** We love God because He first loved us. S. August., 
«T, wretched, as much as possible, ought to love my God, Who 
made me what I was not; Who redeemed me when I was 
about to perish; Who when I was sold on account of my sins, 
gave Himself for me, and Who loved me so much that He gave 
the price of His blood for me.” (3) We ought to love God 
on account of our profit, for He has prepared good things 
which are not able to be spoken of for those who love Him 
—1 Cor. ii. 9, “Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither 
have entered into the heart of man the things which God 
hath prepared for them that love Him." 

III. On the third head it is to be noted that we ought to 
love our neighbour for three reasons. (1) On account of 
the command (S. John xiii. 34), “A new commandment I 
give unto you.” (2) On account of the example of nature, 
for we see that all things naturally love similar things— 
Eccl. xiii. 15, 16, ** Every beast loveth its like, so also every 
man him that is nearest to himself: all flesh shall consort 
with the like to itself." (3) On account of the evil which 
follows him who does not love his neighbour, because he 
incurs the death of sin and hell—1 S. John iii. 14, “ He 
that loveth not his brother abideth in death;" from which 
death may He deliver us, &c. 


“ Son, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst the good things, 
and likewise Lazarus the evil things: but now he is comforted, and 
thou art tormented.”"—S. Luke xvi. 25. 

Four considerations are to be noted in these words. 
Firstly, the prosperity of the wicked in the present life: 
“ thou in thy lifetime receivedst the good things.” Secondly, 
the short adversity of the just in this world: * Lazarus evil 


things.” Thirdly, the eternal happiness of the just: “now 
he is comforted.” Fourthly, the perpetual calamity of the 
wicked: “thou art tormented.” 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that temporal pros- 
perity consists in three things, which this rich man had. 
(1) In temporal riches—“ There was a certain rich man.” 
Psa. xlix. 6, “They that trust in their wealth, and boast 
themselves of the multitude of their riches.” (2) In worldly 
honours—he “ was clothed in purple and fine linen,” &c. 
S. James iv. 16, “Ye rejoice in your boastings.” (3) In 
carnal pleasures—'* And fared sumptuously every day.” 
Job xxi. 18, “ They spend their days in wealth, and in a 
moment go down to the grave." Amos vi. 4, * Eat the 
lambs out of the flock, and the calves out of the midst of the 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the adversity 
of the saints in this present life consists in the three things 
which belonged to Lazarus. (1) In poverty of possessions— 
*'lhere was a certain beggar.” Tobit iv. 21, * We lead 
indeed a poor life, but we shall have many good things if 
we fear God and depart from all sin, and do that which is 
good.” (2)In the gain of contempt—** Was laid at his gate." 
1 Cor. iv. 3, “ We are made as the filth of the world, and 
are the offscouring of all things unto this day." (3) In the 
bitterness of tribulations and afllictions—** Full of sorés." 
Judith viii. 28, Vulg., * All that have pleased God passed 
through many tribulations." 

IH. On the third head it is to be noted, in what things the 
happiness of the saints consists in another state of being. 
(1) In glory and honour—** Was carried by the angels." 
S. August., “A crowd of slaves proclaims the illustrious 
funeral rites of this rich man in purple; but how much 
more illustrious in the sight of God was the ministry of 
angels which was furnished to that poor man full of sores, 
who did not bear him to a marble tomb, but to the bosom of 
Abraham.” Psa. xxi. 5, “ His glory is great in Thy salva- 
tion.” (2) In the possession of the heavenly kingdom— 
“Into Abraham’s bosom,” by which is understood the rest 
of Paradise. S. Matt. v. 3, ** Blessed are the poor in spirit, 
for theirs is the Kingdom of God." (8) In the fruition of 
eternal delights and consolations—Psa. xvi. 10, “At Thy 
right hand, there are pleasures for evermore.” Psa. xxxi. 


19, “Oh, how great is Thy goodness which Thou hast laid 
up for them that fear Thee," &c. 

IV. On the fourth head it is to be noted, that three things 
are mentioned here in which the future calamity of the 
wicked consists. (1) The complete absence of all good 
things; and this is noted by the fact that Dives was not able 
to have a drop of water. Job xxvii. 20, Vulg., * Poverty 
like water shall take hold on him." (2) The bitterness and 
multiplicity of the punishments—** I am tormented in this 
flame.” Psa. xi. 6, “ Upon the wicked He shall rain snares, 
fire and brimstone, and an horrible tempest: this shall be 
the portion of their cup." (3) The mighty confusion and 
ignominy—** Was buried; and in hell.” What can be more 
ignominious than to be buried with such a burial? Jer. 
xxii. 19, “ He shall be buried with the burial of an ass." 
Jer. xx. 11, Vulg., “They shall be greatly confounded, 
because they have not understood the everlasting reproach 
which never shall be effaced.” Therefore present prosperity 
is to be condemned; present adversity to be joyfully sus- 
tained; the calamity of the lost to be fled from; and the 
happiness of the saints to be sought for with all desire; to 
which may we be led, &c. 



“ But whoso hath this world’s good, and seeth his brother have need, 
&c, —1 S. John iii. 17. 

S. Joun the Apostle in these words exhorts us to the 
practice of almsgiving for three reasons, for he who does 
almsgiving obtains three good gifts—(1) temporal good; 
(2) spiritual good ; (3) eternal good. 

I. About the first good. It is noted that man acquires a 
threefold temporal good by almsgiving. (1)Increase of riches 
— Prov. iii. 9, 10, “ Honour the Lord,” i.e., seek ye His praise, 
not thine own, not of the world. “Of thy substance,” z.e., which 
you rightly possess—not from rapine, not from the stranger ; 


and of the first-fruits of your own fruit give to the poor, and 
“so shall thy barns be filled with plenty,” i.e., in a future 
satiety. They shall not hunger any more, neither shall they 
thirst any more, and “thy presses shall burst out with new 
wine.” Gloss.: They who lay up treasure in heaven shall 
find their own delights, the granary of whom will be filled by 
plenty, because they shall be satiated, when His glory will be 
manifested; and the wine-presses will overflow with wine. 
He kindles the hearts of the faithful towards the praises of 
the Creator, and he who bestows earthly subsidies upon the 
poor will be rendered richer by the giving in heavenly 
remuneration. (2) Defence from his enemies—Ecclus. xvii. 
22, “ The alms of man is as a signet with him, and shall 
preserve the grace of a man asthe apple of the eye.” Ecclus. 
xxix. 13, * Ile shall fight for thee against thine enemies 
. better than a mighty shield and strong spear. Gloss.: Alms 

will rather prevail against the enemies than earthly weapons. 
(8) The prolongation of the present life—1 Tim. iv. 8, **God- 
liness is profitable unto all things, having promise of the life 
that now is, and of that which is to come." 

II. About the second good it is to be noted, that man by 
almsgiving acquires a threefold spiritual good. (1) Remis- 
sion of sins—Dan. iv. 27, * Break off thine iniquities by 
shewing mercy to the poor.” Prov. xvi. 6, * By mercy and 
truth iniquity is purged.” Gloss.: Allsin. ‘By mercy" the 
iniquity of sinners is remitted when it gives to and forgives 
others. “ By truth " is understood justice accusing itself for 
its iniquity, and repenting. (2) The hearing of prayers— 
Ecclus. xxix. 12, Vulg., ‘“ Shut up alms in the heart of the 
poor, and it shall obtain help for thee against all evil;” that 
is to say, in removing evil. Gloss.: Alms shut up in the 
heart, are useful for advising and consulting. (3) The pre- 
servation of grace—Ecclus. xvii. 22, ‘* The alms of man is as 
a signet with him, and shall preserve the grace of a man,” &c. 

III. Of the third good, it is to be similarly noted, that by 
almsgiving men acquire a threefold eternal good. (1) Libera- 
tion from eternal death—Tobit iv. 11, Vulg., * For alms de- 
liver from all sin and from death,” &c. (2) The possession of 
eternal life—1 S. Tim. iv. 8, ‘ Godliness is profitable, &c., 
having promise of the life that now is and of that which is to 
come.” (3) The increase of eternal reward—2 Cor. ix. 6, 
* He which soweth sparingly shall also reap sparingly, and 

he which soweth bountifully shall reap also bountifully, 

and shall obtain eternal life;" to which may we be 
brought, &c. 


. Seconp SUNDAY AFTER Trinity.—(FRom THE GOSPEL.) 

‘A certain man made'*aTgreat supper, and bade many."—$S. Luke 
xiv. 16. 

Tue heavenly blessedness, as the saints teach, is under- 
stood by this supper. But it is called a **great supper” 
for three reasons. Firstly, on account of the multitude of 
those who celebrate this supper ; secondly, on account of the 
dishes of meat which are given there in abundance; thirdly, 
on account of the eternity of the supper itself. 

I. On the first head it is called great for a threefold 
reason. (1) By reason of those who make it. The makers 
are the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit. 'The 
Father incomprehensible, the Son incomprehensible, and the 
Holy Spirit incomprehensible ; and therefore They make an 
immense or incomprehensible supper. Isai. xxv. 6, ** And 
in this mountain shall the Lord of Hosts make unto all 
people a feast of fat things, a feast of wine on the lees of fat 
things, full of marrow, of wines on the lees well refined.” 
Esth. i. 8, of Ahasuerus: ‘In the third year of his reign he 
made a feast unto all his princes and his servants," &c. 
(2) By reason of those ministering, who are thousands of 
thousands—Dan. vii. 10, **'Thousand thousands ministered 
unto him.” (3) By reason of the guests, who were ten 
thousand times ten thousand—Dan. vii. 10, ‘“ Ten thousand 
times ten thousand stood before him." 

II. On the second head this is called a great supper 
because there will be there a thousand thousand of dishes. 
The dishes are the joys in life eternal ; and because there arein 
heaven a thousand thousand of joys, there were at the ** great 
supper" a thousand thousand/dishes. But we are here able to 
fix upon three great dishes. (1) There will bea dish of joy by 


the absence of allevil. (2) A dish of joy by the presence of 
all good—Deut. viii. 9, * Where thou shalt eat bread with- 
out scarceness: thou shalt not lack anything in it." Isai. 
xxxv. 10, “ They shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow 
and sighing shall flee away. (3) There will be a dish of joy 
by Divine praise—Psa. lxxxiv. 5, “Blessed are they that 
dwell in Thy house, they will be still praising Thee.” Of 
these three S. August., in his book ** On the City of God,” 
O how great will be that happiness where there will be no 
evil; where no good will be hidden; it will be intent upon 
eternal praises, and God will be all in all. 

III. On the third head it is noted, that this great supper is 
called eternal for three reasons. (1) S. John xvi. 22, ** Your 
, joy no man taketh from you." For to sit down to supper 
is to rejoice. (2) Because no one will ever cease from 
supping—Apoc. iv. 8, ‘“ And they rest not day and night, 
saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, Which was, 
and is, and is to come.” For to praise is the same as to sup. 
(3) It is called eternal because it is eaten entire at once 
— Boetius, ** Eternity is called the possession of the Blessed 
Life, entire at once." Rev. xix. 9, * Blessed are they which 
are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb ;" to which 
supper may Jesus Christ lead us, &c. 



“Humble yourselves therefore under the mighty hand of God, that 
He may exalt you in due time” (S. Peter v. 6); or, “in the time 
of Visitation" (Vulgate). 

Ingthese words S. Peter asserts three things. In the First 
place, he exhorts to humility, * humble yourselves;" in the 
Second place, he shows the necessity of the humbling “under 
the mighty hand of God," Who is able to humble the un- 
willing; in the Third place, he places the usefulness of 
humility, that “ He may exalt you in due time." 


I. On the first head, it is to be noted, that humility is three- 
fold. (1) Of guilt, Ecclus. xix. 23, **There is one that 
humbleth himself wickedly, and his interior is full of deceit." 
(2) Of punishment, Psalm cvi. 42, ‘‘ Their enemies also 
oppressed them, and they were brought into subjection under 
their hand." (3) Of grace, S. Matt. xi. 29, ‘Learn of 
Me, for I am meek and lowly in heart." The first kind of 
humility is to be fled from; the second to be endured ; the 
third to be sought for. 

II. On the second head, it is to be noted, that God shows 
His power over the proud in three ways. (1) In resisting 
them; (2) in casting them down; (3) in punishing them 
eternally. Of the first, S. James iv. 6, “ God resisteth the 
proud, but giveth grace unto the humble.” Of the second, 
Psalm lxxii. 18, Vulg., * When they were lifted up Thou 
hast cast them down.” Of the third, Joel ii. 20, ** And his 
stink shall come up, and his ill-savour shall come up, because 
' he hath done great things." Baruck v. 7, “For God hath 
appointed to bring down every high mountain." (S. Thos. 
reads **mind.") 

III. On the third head, it is to be noted, that man acquires 
a threefold profit from humility. (1) The gift of grace; 
(2) the gift of knowledge; (3) the gift of glory. Of the 
first, S. James iv. 6, God “ giveth grace unto the humbh.” 
Of the second, S. Matt. xi. 25, **'I'hou hast hid these things 
from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto 
babes.” Of the third, Job. xxii. 29, Vulg., “For he that 
hath been humbled shall be in glory." 


* There is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner 
that repenteth.”—S, Luke xv. 10. 

Two things are noted in these words. First, the dignity 
of the angels—** the angels of God.” Second, their benig- 


nity, “joy over one sinner that repenteth." Great is the 
dignity of the angels, because they are the messengers of 
God; and great is their benignity, because they rejoice in 
the conversion of the sinner. 

I. On the first head, it is to be noted, that the angels are 
called ** angels of God," as they are spoken of here; and 
our angels, as they are called in S. Matt. xviii. 10, “Their - 
angels do always behold the face of My Father which is 
in heaven." And by this threefold calling a twofold virtue 
is to be noted in them, for they have the double virtue of 
standing by and ministering; for they stand by God, and they 
minister to us. "They stand by God in a threefold manner. 
(1) In contemplation, S. Matt. xviii. 10, * Do always behold 
the face of My Father." (2) In loving, 1 S. Peter i. 12, 
* Which things the angels desire to look into;" S. August., 
* So great is the fulness of the Divine countenance that no 
one is able to behold it without love." (3) In praising, 
S. Peter Dam., *It is the work of the angels to praise God 
in hymns.” The angels also minister to us in a threefold 
manner. First, in purging us; second, in enlightening us; 
third, in helping us forward. S. Dioni. Are., For by libe- 
rating us they purge us. Isaiah vi. 6, ** Then flew one of 
_ the seraphims unto me, having a live coal in his hand,” &c. 

They illuminate by teaching. Dan. x. 13, ** Michael, one of 
tbe chief princes, came to help me, and I remained there 
with the kings of Persia. Now I am come to make thee 
understand what shall befal thy people in the latter days." 
They help by providing good things. 1 Kings xix. 5, “ An 
angel touched him, and said unto him, Arise and eat." 

II. On the second head, it is noted, that for three reasons 
the angels rejoice over the conversion of sinners. (1) On 
account of the fulfilment of their ministry; for they are 
ministers that exhort us to repentance. Heb. i. 14, “ Are 
they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister to 
them who shall be heirs of salvation?” (2) On account of 
the confusion of the demons; for the demons are confounded 
when any one is converted to repentance, which is the joy 
of angels. Rev. xii. 9-12, * And thegreat dragon was cast 
out, that old serpent called the Devil, and Satan. . . . and 
his angels were cast out with him.” Afterwards, *I heard 
a loud voice saying in heaven, Now is come salvation, and 
strength, . . . . therefore rejoice, ye heavens.” (3) On 



“ Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful.” — 
S. Luke vi. 36. 

Tue Lord sets before us two things in these words. 
Firstly, He induces us to mercy, * Be ye therefore merciful.” 
Secondly, it gives the rule for shewing mercy, “as your 
Father also is merciful.” 

I. On the first head, it is to be noted, that three reasons 
chiefly move us in shewing mercy. (1) Necessity; (2) 
utility ; (3) congruity. It is a necessity, because he who 
does not shew mercy will not find mercy. James ii. 13, 
* For he shall have judgment without mercy that hath 
shewed no mercy." It is useful, because he who shews mercy 
shall find merey. S. Matt. v. 7, “ Blessed are the merciful, 
for they shall obtain mercy." It is congruous, because when 
we obtain mercy from all creatures, it is only suitable that we 
should shew mercy to others. For we are full of misery, and 
unless other creatures should have compassion on us in giving 
themselves and their kind offices for us, we should not be 
able to exist. For if the sun or fire should give up its light 
and heat, and the earth its fruit, what could miserable man 
do? Therefore it is sufficiently congruous, since man meets 
mercy, that he should shew mercy to others. Prov. xix. 22, 
Vulg., ** The needy man is merciful;" and he who needs mercy 
ought to shew mercy to others—ought to be sorry for others; 
whence, in a certain way, creatures accuse the unmerciful. 

II. On the second head, it is to be noted that the mercy 
of God chiefly appeared in three ways. (1) In the gift of 
His Son: it was a great gift, and a great mercy, of which 
S. Luke i. 72, “To perform the mercy promised to our 
fathers." (2) In the glorification of the just, Psalm cix. 
21, * Because Thy mercy is good." Psalm xxxvi. 5, “ Thy 
mercy, O Lord, is in the heavens." (3) In the justification 
of sinners, Psalm lxxxvi. 13, ‘For great is Thy mercy to- 
ward me." On account of the first mercy we ought to praise 
Him and love Him. On account of the second mercy we 
ought to be confident, for however great sinners they may be 
they may fly to God. Isa. lv. 7, “ Let the wicked forsake his 


way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts, and let him 
return unto the Lord, and He will have mercy upon him; 
and to our God, for He will abundantly pardon." On 
account of the third mercy we ought, with quickness, to 
run to God. Heb. iv. 11, *Let us labour, therefore, to 
enter into that rest" (Vulgate, hasten). To which reat 
may we, &c. 


"Let him eschew evil and do good; let him seek peace and ensue it."— 
1 Peter iii. 11. 

THERE are two parts of righteousness to which the blessed 
Peter invites us in these words. . The first is the avoiding 
of evil, “ Let him eschew evil.” The second is, the delight- 
ing in good, * and do good.” 

I. On the first head, it is to be noted that evil is chiefly to be 
avoided for three things. (1) On account of the great bitter- 
ness which it induces. (2) On account of the loss which it 
entails. (3) On account of the punishment to which it 
leads. Of the first, Jer. ii. 19, “ See that it is an evil thing 
and bitter that thou hast forsaken the Lord thy God,” &c. 
Sin induces much bitterness on account of three reasons. 
(1) Because the Lord is opposed to sin. Deut. xxv. 16, 
* For all that do unrighteously are an abomination unto the 
Lord thy God.” Deut. xxxi. 17, “ Many evils and troubles 
shall befall them, so that they will say in that day, Are not 
these evils come upon us because our God is not among us?” 
(2) Because man by sin is greatly disordered in himself. 
S. August., Thou hast commanded, O Lord, and it is truly so, 
that every disordered mind is the punishment to itself. Job. 
vii. 20, ** Why hast Thou set me as a mark against Thee, so 
that I am a burden to myself?" (3) Because every sinner 
impugns the just judgment of God to every creature. Wis. 
xvi. 24, “ The creature serving Thee, the Creator, is made 
fierce against the unjust for their punishment." 

II. On the second head. it is to be noted, that the sinner 


incurs a threefold loss, which is sin. (1) Because by sin 
itself manifold good is taken away. S. Augustine, in the 
* City of God," says, If we were not of a good disposition 
the vices of it would not harm us; but now what they do 
by these things in harming, is that they take away from them- 
selves, integrity, beauty, and salvation. (2) Because of sin the 
gift of grace is taken away. Wis. i. 4, “ Wisdom will not 
enter into a malicious soul, nor dwell in a body subject to 
sins.” (3) On account of sin the gift of glory is taken 
away. Isaiah xxvi. 10, * Will he deal unjustly, and will 
not behold the majesty of the Lord." 

III. On the third head, it is to be noted that sin leads 
men to many punishments; but herethree are stated. There 
will be (1) Continual sorrow in mind. Isa. xiii. 8, ** Pangs 
and sorrows shall take hold of them; they shall be in pain, 
as a woman that travaileth." Job. xx. 22, “ In the fulness 
of his sufficiency he shall be in straits; every hand of the 
wicked shall come upon him.” (2) Continual hunger in 
heart. S. Matt. xiii. 30, * Bind them in bundles to burn 
them." (3) There will be eternity in both states. S. Matt. 
xxv. 41, “ Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire." 
Concerning these three, Isaiah lxvi. 24, “Their worm shall 
not die, neither shall their fire be quenched.” The worm 
denotes grief in mind; he calls the fire torment in the heart. 
The fire being inextinguishable, marks the eternity in both; 
from which fire may Christ deliver us. 


“They forsook all, and followed Him."—5S. Luke v. 11. 

Two things are necessary for us for the following of Him. 
Firstly, that we should turn away from a changing good by 
despising it; secondly, that we should turn towards an un- 
. changing good in loving and imitating it. Both these things 
are noted in the Gospel—the first, “they forsook all;" the 
second, ** and followed Him." 


I. On the first head, it is noticed that we ought to forsake 
four things if we wish to follow Christ—(1) in forsaking 
earthly things by'despising them, S. Luke xiv. 38, ** Whoso- 
ever he be of you.that forsaketh not all that he hath, he can- 
not be My disciple ;” (2) in leaving kinsfolk and parents for 
the sake of God, S. Matt. x. 97, “He that loveth father 
or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me," &c.; (3) in 
abandoning his own body by mortitying it; (4) in denying 
his own will. Of these two, S. Luke ix. 23, “If any man 
will come after Mq let him deny himself and take gp his 
cross daily and follow Me." 

II. On the second head, it is noted that we ought to imi- 
tate Christ in four ways—(1) i in humility, S. Matt. xi. 29, 
* Learn of Me, for I am meek and lowly in heart ;" (2) in 
piety, S. Luke vi. 36, “ Be ye therefore merciful, as vour 
Father is also merciful;" (3) in charity, S. John xv. 17, 
“ These things I command you, that ye love one another ;” 
(4) in the bitterness of tribulations, 1 S. Peter ii. 21, ** Christ 
also suffered for us, leaving us an example that ye should 
follow His steps.” There are two right wayst hrough which 
man walks to the kingdom of heaven, Wisd. x. 10, ‘She 
conducted the just through the right way, and shewed him 
the kingdom of God." To which kingdom may we, &c. 


“For if we have been planted together in the likeness of His death, 
we shall be also in the likeness of His resurrection.”—Roumans vi. 5. 

Tue Apostle makes mention of two things in these words. 
Firstly, he expresses the excellence that we ought to have, 
* We have been planted together in the likeness of His 
death." This is our merit that we may have in ourselves the 
likeness of His, that is of Christ's, death. Secondly, he 
expresses what we ought to receive on account of this ex- 
cellence, ** We shall be also in the likeness of His resurrec- 



tion." This is our reward, that we may have the likeness of 
the resurrection of Christ. 

I. On the first head, it is to be noted, that there were five 
things in the death of Christ in which we ought to follow 
Him—(1) humility ; (2) obedience. Of these two, Philip. 
ii. 8, * He humbled Himself and became obedient unto 
death.” To the first the Lord invites us, S. Matt. xi. 29, 
* Learn of Me, for I am meek and lowly in heart;” to the 
second, S. John xiv. 15, “If ye love Me, keep My com- 
mandments.” (3) Ineffable charity was in the death of . 
Christ, S. John xv. 18, “Greater love hath no man than 
this, that a man lay down his life for his friends ;” and in this 
we ought to be like Him ourselves, S. John xv. 12, ‘ This is 
My commandment, that ye love one another." (4) Patience, 
] S. Peter ii. 28, ** When He suffered He threatened not ;" 
and in this we ought to be made like unto Him, Heb. xii. 
1, 2, ** Let us run with patience the race that is set before 
us, looking unto Jesus, the Author and Finisher of our faith, 
Who for the joy that was set before Him endured the Cross." 
(5) Perseverance, because he who in all things perseveres 
unto death will be saved, Philip. ii. 8, “Obedient unto death, 
even the death of the Cross ;” but we ought to have the like- 
ness of His death in our perseverance, S. Matt. x. 27, “ But 
he that endureth unto the end shall be saved. 

II. On the second head, it is to be noted, that the glory of 
our body, when it is conformed to the body of the glory of 
Christ, consists of seven things. (1) It will be lovely by the 
suitableness of all the members, S. August. (** City of God," 
lib. xxii. c. 19), ** Thenceforth there will be no deformity, 
which now makes unsuitableness of parts, where also the 
things which are deformed may be corrected; and what is 
less than it ought to be, since the Creator knew, thence it 
will be supplied, and what is more than it ought to be will 
be taken away, the integrity of the material being preserved." 
(2) There will be a wonderful sweetness of the outward 
appearance in the whole body, S. August., ‘ How great 
will be the sweetness of complexion when the Just shall 
shine as the Sun in the kingdom of His Father!"  'The 
beauty of all the outward appearance consists in these two 
things, S. August., * All beauty of the body is from the suit- 
ableness of its parts, as by a certain sweetness of complexion;" 
hut there will be then all beauty in our bodies, Philip. iii. 21, 


“ Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned 
like unto His glorious body." (3) There will be velocity 
of motion, S. August., “ Where the spirit shall be willing 
there will be the body instantly." (4) It will have a perfect 
liberation from all want. (5) There will be full and high 
happiness. Of these two, S. August., “All the members 
and bowels of the incorruptible body, which now we see dis~ 
tributed various ways by the use of necessity, will not then 
be so; but this necessity is itself full and certain security and 
eii saure and it will advance in the praises of God." 
(6) It will be impassible and immortal, and eternal, S, 
August., * Whatever has perished from the living bodies, 
or from the corpses after death, shall be restored, or it shall 
remain in the sepulchre, in the newness of the spiritual body 
changed out of the oldness of the animal body, and it will 
rise again, clothed in incorruption and immortality, (7) 
There will be full peace and concord between the body and 
the spirit, 8. August., ** A spiritual flesh will be supplied to 
the flesh, but it will yet be flesh, not spirit.” How happy, 
therefore, will they be who shall be held to be worthy of that 
resurrection! Yet they must be those, who here have died 
with Christ, Colos. iii, 3, 4, ** Ye are dead, and your life is hid 
with Christ in God. When Christ, Who is our life, shal] 
appear, then shall ye also appear with Him in glory.” Ta 
which glory may we, &c. 


“Except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the Scribes 
and aie Mg shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.” 

—S. Matt. v. 

In this Gospel the Lord treats of four things. I. He 
shews what we ought to do, “Except your righteousness 
shall exceed,” &c.; which proves that we ought to have 
abundant righteousness, 

c 2 


II. He shews what we seek, “the kingdom of heaven." 
.For this reason we ought to do righteousness, that by it we 
may come to the kingdom. Of both, S. Matt. vi. 33, “Seek 
ye first the kingdom of God and His righteousness." "There 
He shews what we should avoid, ** Thou shalt not kill." 

III. But He shews that we ought to flee from a three- 
fold sin. (1) The sin of deed, “Thou shalt not kill:" by 
this is prohibited every act by which our neighbour is 
injured. Isai. i. 16, “Cease to do evil.” Levit. xix. 16, 
* Neither shalt thou stand against the blood of thy neigh- 
bour.” (2) He prohibits all sin of the heart, * Whosoever 
is angry with his brother.” Eccles. xi. 10, * Remove 
anger from thy heart, and put away evil from thy flesh." 
(8) Sin of the mouth, S. Matt. v. 22, * But whosoever shall 
say to his brother, Raca.” Ephes. iv. 29, “Let no corrupt 
communication, proceed out of your mouth." 

IV. He shews what we ought to fear, t.e., the coming 
judgment, * Shall be in danger of the judgment.” But He 
here places three things that we ought to fear—(1) The 
judgment in which all the wicked shall be condemned, ‘shall 
be in danger of the judgment." Judith xvi. 20, “The Lord 
Almighty will take revenge on them; in the day of judg- 
ment He will visit them.” (2) The Council of Angels and 
Saints, in which all the wicked will be examined, but ** who 
Shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the 
Council" Isai. iii. 14, ** The Lord will enter into judgment 
with the ancients of His people and the princes thereof." 
Mal. iv. 6, * Lest I come to smite the earth with a curse.” 
(3) The infernal fire, in which all the wicked will be eter- 
nally punished, * shall be in danger of hell fire." Judith 
xvi..21, * For He will give fire and worms into their flesh 
that they may burn and may feel for ever." From which 
fire may Christ deliver us, &c. 



“Ag ye have yielded your members servants to uncleanness and to 
iniquity unto iniquity, even so now yield your members servants to 
righteousness unto holiness.”——Romans vi. 19. 

In this Epistle the Apostle exhorts us to two things— 
firstly, to the avoidance of evil, * As ye have yielded your 
members," &c.; secondly, to the love of good, ‘even so now 
yield your members,” &c. 

I. On the first head, the Apostle assigns in this Epistle 
four reasons through which sin should be avoided. (1) 
Because sin pollutes the mind ‘‘to uncleanness.” Hosea ix. 
10, ‘*Their abominations were according as they loved." 
(2) Becausé by sin man ignominiously subjects himself to 
servitude, * When ye were the servants of sin.” §S. John 
viii. 34, ‘“ Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of 
sin.” (3) Because great confusion flows from sin, ** What 
fruit had ye then in those things whereof ye are now 
ashamed?” Jeremiah xvii. 13, **O Lord, all that forsake 
Thee shall be ashamed.” (4) Because by sin man is led 
to eternal death, **The wages of sin is death." Psalm 

xxxiii. 22, Vulg., ** The death of the wicked is very evil.” 

.. II. On the second head, it is to be noted, that likewise four 
reasons are given why good should be chosen. For men 
acquire four great things from the choice of that which is 
good. (1) Purity of the mind or sanctification, which is 
cleansing, S. Matt. v. 8, “ Blessed are the pure in heart, for 
they shall see God.” (2) Justice of the will “to righte- 
ousness.” For righteousness is a right will, S. Ansel., “ Jus- 
tice is rectitude of the will preserved on its own account." 
(9) Liberty of the spirit, * Ye were free from righteous- 
ness.” 2 Cor. iii. 17, “Where the Spirit of the Lord is 
there is liberty" S. John viii. 36, ** If the Son, therefore, 
shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed." (4) Man 
by doing good obtains eternal life, “The gift of God is 
eternal life." S. John v. 29, ** And shall come forth they 
that have done good unto the resurrection of life." S. Matt. 
xxv. 46, “ Those shall go away into everlasting punishment, 
but the righteous into life eternal." 



‘Seventa SUNDAY AFTER Triniry.—(From THE GosPEL.) 

'* And He took the seven loaves and gave thanks, and brake and gave to 
His disciples to set before them.”~—S, Mark viii. 6, 7. 

Tue Lord feeds His holy ones in a threefold manner. 
First, with corporeal bread, Psal. civ. 14, “That He may 
bring forth food out of the earth.” Secondly, with spiritual 
bread, Prov. xx. 18, “ Open thine eyes,” ùe., the eyes of the 
heart to holy vigils, **and thou shalt be satisfied with bread," 
i.e., with holy doctrine or with heavenly joys. Thirdly, with 
eternal bread, Psal, cxxxii. 15, “ I will satisfy her poor with 
bread.” | 

By these seven loaves are understood the seven breads with 
which the Lord feeds His faithful ones, that they may not 
fail in the way of righteousness; but in their strength they 
may come to the table of heavenly glory. The first is the 
most sweet effusion of tears from the desire of glory, Psal, 
xlii. 3, * My tears have been my meat day and night." $. 
August., ** Tears were flowing to me, and it was well for 
me in regard to them." The second, the ineffable consola- 
tion in the words of God, S. Matt. iv. 4, ** Man shall not live 
by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the 
mouth of God." Jer. xv. 16, “ Thy words were found, and 
I did eat them, and Thy word was unto me the joy and re- 
joicing of mine heart, for I am called by Thy name, O Lord 
God of Hosts." The third, the ineffable delight in the par- 
taking of the Eucharist, S. John vi. 51, **'The bread that I 
will give is My flesh, which I will give for the life of the 
world." Wisdom xvi. 20, “ And gavest them bread from ' 
heaven, prepared without labour, having in it all that is 
delicious and the sweetness of every taste.” The fourth, 
the admirable sweetness from the presence of Christ, S. John 
vi 51, “I am the living bread which came down from 
heaven." For it is evident that the just ever have Christ to 
dwell in their hearts; how great is the happiness of him 
who ever has Christ dwelling in his heart. Ephes. iii. 16, 17, 
“That He would grant you according to the riches of His 
glory to be strengthened with might by His Spirit in the inner 


man, that Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith." "The 
Jifth, the foretaste of eternal blessedness, Psal. Ixxviii. 25, 
" Man did eat angels food." S. August. * Brought in 
within I know not to what sweetness, which if it is perfected 
in me, I know not what eternal life is, unless it be that." 
The sixth, in the possession of joy by every virtue, because 
it is joy to have so many gifts of the Holy Spirit, and those 
twelve fruits which the Apostle enumerated—Gal. v. 22, 23, 
* But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long suffer- 
ing, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance "— 
which are therefore called fruits, because they more refresh 
the mind than can be expressed by words. Prov. ix. 5, 
* Come, eat of My bread." The seventh, the exultation by 
the testimony of conscience, Prov. xv. 15, Vulg., ** A secure 
mind is like a continual feast." 2 Cor. i. 12, * For our re- 
joicing is this, the testimony of our conscience.” 

Of the just man it is said, Isai. xxxiii. 16, * Bread shall 
be given him.” The small fishes are the joysin the presence 
of the saints, who are even now taken away from the most 
bitter sea of this world, who frequently come and console 
the just * who are in the way.” There are, indeed, some 
martyrs who are wasted, as Laurence and others, who, being 
afflicted with fires and differents torments, were smiling ` 
brightly, and so by their mirth proclaimed that they had infi- 
nite delights within, by which they could despise external tor- 
ments. 2 Cor. xi. 27, 30, “If I must needs glory, I will 
glory of the things which concern my infirmities.” 2 Cor. 
xii. 9, 10, ** Most gladly therefore will I rather glory in my 
infirmities. I take pleasure in infirmities, in reproaches, in 
necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for Christ's sake." 
* Concerning this banquet of the just it is said, S. Matt. xxii. 
4, “Behold, I have prepared my dinner; my oxen and my 
fatlings are killed." At such banquets, which the wicked 
know not of, the just are enjoying all the day long. Psal. 
Ixviii. 4, Vulg., * Let the just feast and rejoice before God." 
If the righteous so feast in the present time, what will it be 
in the time to come? Blessed is he who shall eat bread in 
the kingdom of heaven. To which kingdom may Jesus 
Christ lead us. 

à 24 



“ For if ye live after the flesh ye shall die ; but if ye through the Spirit 
do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live."— Romans viii. 18. 

THE Apostle does three things in these words—Firstly, he 
commands us that we should mortify the pleasure of the 
flesh, “through the Spirit do ye mortify the deeds of the 
body." Secondly, he places the necessity of mortifying it, 
«if ye live after the flesh ye shall die." Thirdly, he places 
the profit of the mortification, ** ye shall live.” 

I. On the first head, it is to be noted, that in a threefold 
manner we ought to mortify the flesh. (1) By destroying 
its carnal desires and sin, Colos. iii. 5-10, * Mortify therefore 
your members which are upon the earth—fornication, un- 
cleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence, and covet- 
ousness, which is idolatry, for which things' sake the wrath 
of God cometh on the children of disobedience ; in the which 
ye also walked some time, when ye lived in them. But now 
ye also put off all these: anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, 
filthy communication out of your mouth. Lie not one to 
another, seeing that ye have put off the old man with his 
deeds; and have put on the new man, which is renewed in 
knowledge after the image of Him that created him." (2) 
By macerating it by fasting and afflictions to the likeness of 
the passion of Jesus Christ, 2 Cor. iv. 10, ** Always bearing 
about in the body the dying of the Lord Jesus, that the life 
also of Jesus might be made manifest in our body." (3) In 
afflicting it by spiritual meditations, Eccles. xii. 12, “ Much 
study is a weariness of the flesh."  Ecclus. xxxi. 1, *Watch- 
ing for riches consumeth the flesh." "That is carnal plea- 
sures ; the thought of it takes away sleep, 7.e., the weariness 
of sluggishness. In the same chapter, v. 2, “ The thinking 
beforehand taketh away the understanding,” i.e., he who sees 
beforehand the rewards of gifts turns away sense—z.e., from 
all evil concupiscence; and heavy infirmity—i.e., of the body 
—makes the mind free from sin. 

II. On the second head, it is to be noted that it is neces- 
sary we should mortify the flesh, since if we live after the 


flesh we shall die; for it follows that there is a threefold 
death from the pleasure of the flesh—(1) the death of sin ; 
(2) the death of nature, Ecclus. xxxvii. 34, ** By surfeiting 
many have perished ;” (3) the death of Gehena, Gal. vi. 8, 
* He that soweth to his flesh shall of the flesh reap corrup- 
tion ;" Psal. xxxiii, 22, Vulg., “The death of the wicked is 
very evil." 

III. On the third head, it is to be noted that a threefold 
life is acquired by the mortification of the flesh—(1) prolon- 
gation of natural life, Ecclus. xxxvii. 31, * He that is tem- 
perate shall prolong life ;" (2) the lifeof grace, Rom. viii. 6, 
* To be spiritually minded is life and peace;" (3) the pro- 
longation of the life of glory, 2 Cor. iv. 11, * Always bear- 
ing about in the body the dying of the Lord Jesus, that the 
life of Jesus might be made manifest in our body." 


“ Every good tree bringeth forth good fruit, but a corrupt tree bringeth 
forth evil fruit.”—S. Matt, vii. 17. 

Tue Lord in this Gospel signifies the three kinds of trees 
which are in the island of this world. Firstly, He signifies 
the tree bringing forth good fruits, “Every good tree." 
Secondly, that bringing forth evil fruits, * A corrupt tree,” 
&c. Thirdly, the tree bringing forth no fruits, ** Every tree 
that bringeth not forth good fruit,” &c. 

I. The Lord commends the first tree to us for three reasons. 
First, from the multiplicity of fruits—“ fruit.” He speaks 
plyrally, that the just who is here called a good tree ought 
to produce much fruit: for it ought to produce twelve fruits 
—(1) charity ; (2) joy; (8) peace; (4) patience; (5) long 
suffering ; (6) goodness ; (7) gentleness; (8) mildness; (9) 
faith ; (10) modesty ; (11) continency ; (12) chastity. Gal. 
y. 22, “But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace," &c. 
Secondly, He commends it for the prectousness of the fruits, 


* good ;" but the goodness of these fruits is manifest, because 
by such fruits the kingdom of God is gained; and the trees 
of Paradise give such fruit. Rom. xiv. 17, * The kingdom 
of God is not meat and drink, but righteousness, peace, and 
joy in the Holy Ghost.” Thirdly, He commends it by its 
constancy of fruit bearing, “ brings forth." It is of the pre- 
sent time in which it is shewn that it is ever in the act of 
bearing fruit, Jer. xvii. 7, 8, Blessed is the man that trusteth 
in the Lord, and whose hope the Lord is; for he shall be as 
a tree planted by the water . . . and shall not be careful in 
the year of drought, neither shall cease from yielding fruit." 
Ezek. xlvii. 12, “ And by the river upon the bank thereof, 
this side and on. that side, shall grow all trees for meat; 
whose leaf shall not fade, neither shall the fruit thereof be 
consumed." Of these three, Rev. xxii. 2, * On either side of 
the river was there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner 
of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month, and the leaves 
of the tree were for the healing of the nations."  Behold the 
prectousness of the fruits, for the just eat them and they 
live for ever. ‘Twelve manner of fruits "—their multi- 
plicity. “Every month "—behold their continuity of bear- 
ing. | 
II. Three evils are attributed to the second tree—(1) mor- 
tification of the fruits of the wicked—* fruit," for in this 
word, which is spoken in the plural, Our Lord remarks that 
the wicked man, who is here called **a corrupt tree," bears 
many evil fruits, which are evil deeds. But the Apostle 
enumerates seventeen fruits of the evil tree, Gal. v. 19, 20, 21, 
which are the ** works of the flesh,” and ‘ they which do 
such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God." (2) The 
perversity of the fruits, “evil,” S. Matt. xii. 85, ** An evil 
man out of the evil treasure bringeth forth evil things.” (8) 
The assiduity of working evil, “ brings forth," Hos. iv. 10, 
Vulg., “They have committed fornication, and have not 

III. About the third tree, it is to be noted, that there are 
three kinds of trees which bring forth no fruit—(1) Which 
makes leaves without flowers: these are they which have 
words without works, S. Matt. xxi. 19, ** He saw a fig-tree 
and found nothing thereon butleaves only." Our Lord cursed 
it, * How soon is the fig-tree withered away.” (2) Which 
has flowers without fruits: these are they which bring forth 


works in appearance but not in truth, 2 Tim. iii. 5, ** Having 
a form of godliness, but denying the power thereof." Job 
viii. 12, 18, ** Whilst it is yet in his greenness,'and not cut 
down, it withereth before any other herb. So are the paths 
of all that forget God, and the hypocrite's hope shall perish." 
(3) That which brings forth fruit, but it is wholly useless, 
Wisd. iv. 5, * Their fruit shall be unprofitable, and sour to 
eat, and fit for nothing." Jude 12, “Trees whose fruit 
withereth, without fruit, twice dead, plucked up by the roots." 
But, alas, to such trees, for they are cut dówn with the axe of 
the Divine judgment, and they will be sent into the eternal fire 
of hell. S. Matt. iii. 10, * And now also the axe is laid unto 
the root of the trees, therefore every tree which bringeth not 
forth good fruit is hewn down and cast into the fire.” From 
which fire may the Lord deliver us. 

Ninth SuNDAY AFTER Trinity.—(From THE EPisTLE.) 
“Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them.”—1 Cor. x. 7. 

THE Apostle here sets forth two things. Firstly, he ad- 
monishes that we should flee from spiritual idolatry, ** Nei- 
ther be ye idolaters.” . For he was speaking to.the faithful 
who now had no idols; whence it is manifest that he was 
advising them to avoid that idolatry which consists in vices. 
Secondly, he compares the spiritual idolatry with bodily ido- 
latry, * As were some of them,” who adored a calf and other 

I. Of the bodily idolatry, it is known' that it was three- 
fold —(1) in the stars; (2) in the elements. Of these two, 
Wisdom xiii. 2, ** Either the fire or the wind, or the swift 
air, or the circle of the stars, or the great water, or the sun 
and moon," &c. In the former of these is seen the idolatry 
of the elements; in the latter, that of the stars. (3) Idola- 
try in animals, Rom. i. 23, “ And change the glory of the 
incorruptible God into an image," &c. The idolatry in the 


stars signifies pride, whence the first proud one said, Isa. 
xiv. 18, “ I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne 
above the stars of God . . . I will be like the Most High.” 
S. Augustine, “And they thought that they would exalt 
themselves with stars and lightning, and behold they have 
fallen upon earth." 

II. The idolatry of the elements signifies the idolatry of 
the covetous, Colos. iii. 5, ** Covetousness, which is idolatry.” 
The idolatry of animals is that of carnal concupiscence, 
which exists in the pleasures of the flesh, S. Jude 10, “ But 
what they know naturally as brute beasts in those things '' 
they corrupt themselves." Of these three, S. James iii. 15, 
‘“ This wisdom descendeth not from above, but is earthly,” 
through avarice; “sensual,” by luxury; **devilish," through 

“Give an account of thy stewardship."—S, Luke xvi. 2. 

Turis word is spoken to every one at death or in the judg- 
ment, since it behoves us all to come before the heavenly tribu- 
nal of Christ the Judge, 2 Cor. v. 10, ‘ For we must all appear 
before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one may re- 
ceive the things done in his body according to that he hath 
done, whether it be good or bad;" and therefore every man 
ought to think how he will then beableto give account. But 
we ought to consider three things about this aecount. (1) The 
difficulty of rendering the account; (2) of the witnesses, who 
will aceuse those rendering a false account, themselves giving 
the true one; (3) the severity of the sentence which will 
be given against those who have rendered a false account. 

I. On the first head, it is to be noted that (1) it will be diffi- 
cult to render account of all the thoughts, Ps. Ix xv. 11, Vulg., 
* For the thought of man shall give praise to Thee." Wied. i. 9, 
* For inquisition shall be made into the thoughts of the un- 
godly.” (2) Of the sayings, S. Matt. xii. 36, “ But I say 


unto you that every idle word that men shall speak they 
shall give account thereof in the day of judgment; for by 
thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou 
shalt be condemned." Eccles. xii. 14, ** For God shall bring 
every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether 
it be good or whether it be evil." 

II. On the second head, it is to be noted, that three most 
true witnesses will accuse the ungodly in the judgment. 
The first witness will be God, Mal. iii. 5, ** And I will comé 
near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness 
against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and against 
false swearers . . . .. For I am the Lord : I change not." 
The second will be conscience, Rom. ii. 15, ‘Their conscience 
also bearing witness, and their thoughts in the meanwhile 
accusing or else excusing one another, in the day when God 
shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ." The third 
will be every creature, Job xx. 27, “The heavens shall re- 
veal his iniquity, and the earth shall rise up against him ;" 
whence a certain holy father said: we are about to render an 
account in the presence of heaven and earth; and do you 
mock ? 

III. On the third head, it is to be noted, that the severity to 
the sentence on the wicked will be felt in three ways. (1) They 
will be deprived of all good things, S. Augus. (in his book of 
the “City of God”), “In the last punishment it will be just, 
that the wicked and the ungodly should weep for the loss of 
natural good things in their torments, feeling their depriver 
to be the most just God, when they have despised the most 
bountiful Benefactor." Job xx. 15, * He hath swallowed 
down riches, and he shall vomit them up again: God shall 
cast them out of his belly." (2) Because they shall be tor- 
mented by the burning of the most fierce fire, Isa. lxvi. 24, 
“Neither shall their fire be quenched.” (3) Because they 
shall not be liberated for ever, S. Matt. xxv. 41, ‘ Depart 
from me," without Whom there is no good: behold the first. 
“Into fire:" behold the second. ‘“ Everlasting:” behold 
the third. From which may Jesus Christ deliver us. 




[This Homily is substituted for the one which occurs in the series, and which 
treats of the false gods of the heathen. | . 

“ He that glorieth let him glory in the Lord."—1 Cor. i. 1. 

EvERY rational creature longs for glory, because such an 
one.was created for glory; and therefore the Apostle in 
these words points out where true glory ean be found ; and 
he points out here two kinds of glory—an unreal and a live 


I. On the first head, it is to be noted, that there is (1) a 
false glory in temporal riches—** And boast themselves in the 
multitude of their riches," Psa. xlix. 6. (2) A vain glory— 
«* Wicked boasteth of his heart's desire," Psa. x. 3; that is, 
he glories in earthly dignities. ‘Let not the wise man 
glory in his wisdom, neither let the mighty man glory in his 
might," Jer. ix. 23. (8) There is also a foolish glory in 
pleasures ; for it is foolish to glory in mortal meats—'* She 
that liveth in pleasure is dead," 1 S. Tim. v. 6. (4) An evil 
glory in wickedness—‘ Why boasteth thou thyself in mis- 
chief?” Psa.lii. 1. The first glory tendeth to poverty— 
*& The rich man shall lie down, but he shall not be gathered ; 
he openeth his eyes, and he is not" (Job xxvii. 19). The 
second ends in ignominy—- Their glory shall fly away like 
a bird," Hosea ix. 11. The third is changed into the anguish 
of grief—** How much she hath glorified herself and lived 
deliciously, so much torment and sorrow gave her," Rev. 
xviii. 7. The fourth into eternal torment—-“ Upon the 
wicked He shall rain snares, fire and brimstone,” &c., Psa, 
xi.6. “ For their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire 
be quenched,” Isa. Ixvi. 24. 

II. On the second head, it is to be noted that true glory 
consists (1) in our knowledge of the Lord—‘ Let him that 
glorieth glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth 


Me that I am the Lord," Jer. ix. 24. (2) In consideration 
of His wonders—** He gave them to glory in His marvellous 
acts," Ecclus. xvii. 9. (3) In His love—“ Let them that 
love Thy name be joyful in Thee," Psa. v. 11. (4) In His 
praise—'* That my glory may sing praise to Thee,” Psa. 
xxx. 12. (5) In the fruition of God—* I shall be satisfied 
when I awake with Thy likeness,” Psa. xvii. 15. 



“ Thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, 
and keep thee in on every side.”—S. Luke xix. 48. 

Tue Lord in these words predicts the adversity which was 
about to destroy the vain prosperity of this world, about 
which three things are to be noted. (1) The universality of 
the adversity itself—‘‘ Compass thee round.” (2) The multi- 
plicity of the punishment which there will be in it—'* And - 
keep thee in on every side.” The multitude is the cause of 
the keeping in. (3) The eternity of the same adversity— 
* Shall lay thee even with the ground ;" that is, will destroy 
wholly, so that no one will be able to be liberated. 

I. On the first head, it is to be noted, that misfortunes 
come to the wicked from eight quarters. (1) From the earth 
—Psa. cvi. 17, “The earth opened and swallowed up," &c. 
Job. xx. 27, “The earth shall rise up against him." (2) 
From water, which shall suffocate them——Wisd. v. 23, ‘The 
water of the sea shall rage against them, and the rivers shall 
run together in a terrible manner." (3) From the air which 
will lighten against them—Wied. v. 22, * Then shafts of 
lightning shall go directly from the clouds as from a bow 
well bent; they shall be shot out, and shall fly to the mark." 
(4) From fire, which shall consume them—Paa. xcvii. 3, “ A 
fire goeth before him and burneth his enemies round about.” 
(5) From the sun, moon, and stars, which shall hide them- 


selves from him—Joel iii. 15, ** The sun and the moon shall 
be darkened, and the stars shall withdraw their shining." 
S. Matt. xxiv. 29, * Shall the sun be darkened, and the 
moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from 
heaven." (6) From the saints, who will condemn them— 
S. Matt. xix. 28, ** Ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, 
judging the twelve tribes of Israel" (7) From the Lord 
Jesus Christ, Who will judge them—S. Matt. xxv. 34, 41, 
*'Then shall the King say unto them on the left hand, 
Depart from me, ye cursed," &c. (8) From the angels, who 
will carry them into hell—S. Matt. xiii. 41, 42, “The Son 
of Man shall send forth His angels. . . and shall cast them 
into a furnace of fire.” 

If. On the second head, it is to be noted, that there are 
eight punishments of the wicked, which will greatly distress 
them. (1) There will be a rational blindness of the highest 
ignorance, for the torment—S. Greg., “ In the ordained tor- 
ments it will be permitted to know nothing beyond the torments 
themselves. (2) There will bea continued trouble of hatred 
and anger to the irritation of the tormented—Psa. exii. 10, 
“ The wicked shall see it and be grieved.” (3) There will 
be the lack of all sweetness for the punishment of the 
lustful—S. Greg., * For what can be a greater misery than 
, ever to desire what never can be, and ever to hate what 
always is. For the ungodly will never have what he desires. 
Ps. cxii. 10, “ The desire of the wicked shall perish.” (4)There 
will be a continual sound of weeping and wailing for the 
punishment of the hearer—Job. xv. 21, “ A dreadful sound is 
in his ears.” S. Jas. v. 1, “Go to now, yerich men, weep and 
howl.” (5) There will be a continual effusion of tears for 
the punishment of the eyes of the bodies of those who were 
burned—S. Luke vi. 25, “ Woe unto you that laugh now, 
for ye shall mourn and weep.” Job xx. 18, “He shall be 
punished for all that he did, and yet not be consumed.” In 
the lives of the Fathers we read, “ Let us pray, children, 
before we come to that place where tears shall consume our 
bodies.” (6) There will be an intolerable odour as the smell 
of the suppliants—Isai. iii. 24, ‘‘ Instead of a sweet smell 
there shall be a stink.” (7) There will be the taste for 
punishment, food and drink the most bitter—Jer. ix. 15, 
«T will feed them, even this people, with wormwood, and 
give them the water of gall to drink." (8) There will bea 


most glowing fire and perpetual burning—TIsai. lxvi. 24, 
* For their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be 
quenched.” ‘Are they not therefore foolish who, for 
momentary delights, bind themselves to so many perpetual 
evils?” (S. Greg.) 

III. On the third head—the eternity of the adversity—it 
is a momentary thing which delights: it is an eternal thing 
which crucifies. 


“By the grace of God I am what I am."—1 Cor. xv. 10. 

THREE things are to be noted in these words. Firstly, the 
great bountifulness of God—“ By the grace of God,” &c. 
Secondly, the utility of the grace—“ His grace which was 
bestowed upon me was not in vain." Thirdly, the weakness 
of the free-will—** Yet not I." 

I. On the first head, it is to be noted, that in three ways 
appears the great goodness of God to sinners, which 
appeared in S. Paul. (1) In the calling of so great sinners 
—‘ Because I persecuted the Church of God." 1 S. Tim. 
i. 15, * Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, 
of which I am chief." (2) In the bestowing of abundant 
grace—Rom. v. 20, ** Where sin abounded, grace did much 
more abound.” This is expressed in ihe words, “ By the 
grace of God I am what I am ;" as a great Apostle, such an 
one, and so great. (3) In the exhibition of spiritual friendship 
—Job xxii. 23, “ If thou return to the Almighty thou shalt 
be built up, thou shalt put away iniquity far from thy 
tabernacles ;" v. 26, * For then shalt thou have thy delight 
in the Almighty, and shalt lift up thy face unto God." 

II. On the second head, it is to be noted, that there is here 
& manifold utility of grace. (1) Because it cleanses from 



the defilement of all sin—Rom. iii. 24, “Being justified 
freely by His grace through the redemption that is in Christ 
Jesus; Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation,” &c. 
(2) Because it liberates us from all misery—Rom. vii. 24, 
* OQ wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from 
the body of this death? Ithank God, through Jesus Christ 
our Lord.” (8) Because it confirms in good—Heb. xiii. 9, 
* It is a good thing that the heart be established with grace." 
(4) It illuminates the mind—Job xxv. 3, * Upon whom doth 
not His light arise?" (5) It delights the mind, whence grace 
is defined to be the soul's delight. (6) It makes joyful its 
possessor—Psa. civ. 15, ** Oil to make his face to shine;” 
whence the Gloss., “Grace is a certain glistening of the mind 
to the commending holy love.” (7) It leads men to the glory 
of eternal life—Rom. vi. 23, ‘The gift of God is eternal ` 
life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.” 

III. On the third head, it is to be noted, that the weakness 
of the free-will appears in three ways. (1) Because it is ever 
prone to doing evil— Gen. viii. 21, ** For the imagination of 
man's heart is evil from his youth." (2) Because it is not 
able by itself to arise again when it has fallen into deadly 
sin—Psalm Ixxviii. 39, * Man is as a wind that passeth 
away and cometh not again." (3) Because it is not able to 
do any good thing—2 Cor. iii. 5, “ Not that we are sufficient 
of ourselves to do anything as of ourselves." The Helper of 
grace is ever to be fled to, Who willingly offered Himself for 
all, and through Whom we can do all things; which may the 
Lord give us, &c. Amen. 

“Two men went up in the temple to pray.^—S. Luke xviii. 10. 

THREE things are to be noted in this Gospel. Firstly, the 
great pride of the Pharisee, ‘The Pharisee stood and prayed 
thus with himself." Secondly, the true humility of the pub- 


lican, “The publican standing afar off.” Thirdly, the great 
justice of God in His house, **'['his man went down to his 
house justified,” &c. 

I. On the first head, it is to be noted, that the pride of the 
Pharisee was seen in three ways. (1) Because candidly he 
was thinking himself just, “I am not as other men are ;” as 
if he alone was just. (2) Because he despised others, ‘I 
thank Thee that I am not as other men are;" despising all, 
he alone thought he possessed what he did not. (3) Because 
he arrogantly boasted of his own good deeds, “I fast twice 
in the week." Gloss., * He who went up to pray does not 
pray, but praises himself." "There are three acts of pride, 
as the Gloss. says, which thus begins, “ There are four kinds 
of fear," &c. 

II. On the second head, it is to be noted, that the humility 
of the publican appears in three things. (1) He was stand- 
ing a long way off, as if unworthy to enter the temple of 
God: ‘Standing afar off.” (2) That he judged himself 
unworthy even to see the temple: ‘“ Would not so much as 
lift up his eyes to heaven,” &c. (3) Because he judged 
himself to be a sinner, and was asserting this: **Smote upon 
his breast, saying, God be merciful to me a sinner.” These 
are three acts of humility, Gloss., * He did not dare to draw 
near that God should draw near unto him "—the first; **Ie 
does not regard that he should be regarded "—the second ; 
* He knows that God does not know him "—the third. 

III. On the third head, it is to be noted, that the justice 
of Christ appears in three ways in this Gospel—(1) in the 
justification of the humble publican; (2) in the condemnation 
of the proud Pharisee; (3) in the exaltation of the humble 
over the proud. Of the first, ‘ This man went down to his 
house justified." Of the second, * Rather than the other." 
Gloss., “That is, before him in comparison with him; or 
more than he." Gloss., **'The heart is exalted before a fall, 
which applies to the Pharisee; and it is humbled before 
grace, which applies to the publican.” Of the third, “He 
that humbleth himself shall be exalted.” Gloss., * The con- 
troversy is placed between the publican and Pharisee: after- 
wards the sentence of the Judge is recorded, that we should 
avoid pride; that we should hold to humility, which exalts a 
fian to eternal glory.” Job xxii. 29, Vulg., “ He that hath 
been humbled shall be in glory.” To which glory may 
we, &c. e 


“Such trust have we through Christ to God-ward."—2 Cor. iii. 4. 

Tnt Apostle treats of three things in these words. Firstly, 
he treats of the faith of the Saints, “Such trust have we." 
Secondly, he shews on whose account there is this trust, 
“Through Christ.” Thirdly, he shews in whom the Saints 
have trust, “ To God-ward.” Remark that this trust is two- 

fold—good and evil. 

' I. The good trust is of the Saints or of the good men; but 
the evil trust is the confidence of bad men or of sinners. 
But the trust of the good, as gathered from the text, consists 
in seven things. (1) In the fear of God, Prov. xiv. 26, **In 
the fear of the Lord is strong confidence.” (2) In prayer, 
1 Chron. xvii. 25, Vulg., “Thy servant hath found confi- 
dence to pray before thee." 1 S. John iii. 21, ** Beloved, if 
our heart condemn us not, then have we confidence toward 
God ; and whatsoever we ask we receive of Him, because we 
keep His commandments, and do those things that are pleas- 
ing in His sight." (8) In consecration of himself to God, 
Job xi. 14-18, “If iniquity be in thy hand, put it far away, 
and let not wickedness dwell in thy tabernacles, for then 
shalt thou lift up thy face without spot, yea, thou shalt be 
stedfast and shall not fear; because thou shalt forget thy 
misery, and remember it as waters that pass away, and thine 
nge Shall be clearer than the noon-day; thou shalt shine 
forth, thou shalt be as the morning. And thou shalt be 
secure, because there is hope; yea, thou shalt dig about 
thee, and thou shalt take thy rest in safety: also thou shalt 
lie down and none shall make thee afraid; yea, many shall 
make suit unto thee.” (4) In bountiful almsgiving, Tobit 
iv. 12, * Alms shall be a great confidence before the Most 
High God." (5) In the keeping of the Divine law, Prov. 
xxii. 17-19, * Bow down thine ear and hear the words af 
the wise, and apply thine heart unto my knowledge; for it 
is a pleasant thing if thou keep them within thee: they shall 


withal be fitted in thy lips that thy trust may be in the Lord” 
—i.e., not in the world, not in anything else. (6) In the 
blood of Christ, Heb. x. 19, ** Having therefore, brethren, 
boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, by a 
new and living way.” (7) In the day of judgment, 1 S. 
John iv. 17, ‘ Herein is our love made perfect, that we may 
have boldness in the day of judgment; because as He is, so 
are. we in this world.” 

II. In like manner the trust of the wicked. consists in 
seven things, which are to be gathered from the text. (1) 
In riches, Jer. xlix. 4, “Wherefore gloriest thou in the 
valleys, thy flowing valleys, O backsliding daughter? that 
trusted in her treasures." (2) In stupidity and malicious- 
ness, Isa. xlvii. 10, * For thou trusted in thy wickedness: 
thou hast said, None seeth me. Thy wisdom and thy know- 
ledge, it hath perverted thee; and thou hast said in thine 
heart, I am, and none else besides me.” (3) In the false 
array of the powerful, “ Isa. xxx. 1, 2, 3, “ Wo to the rebel- 
lious children . . . To strengthen themselves in the strength 
of Pharaoh, and having trust in the shadow of Egypt; there- 
fore shall the strength of Pharaoh be your shame, and the 
trust in the shadow of Egypt your confusion." *Pharaoh" is 
the prince of this world, “the shadow of Egypt” the power 
of this world. Heis rightly called “confusion,” because often 
when help is looked for destruction follows; as also the 
shadow of the power of this world ends in ignominy. Ac- 
cording as Isaiah says, xlii. 17, ‘‘ They shall be turned back, 
they shall be greatly ashamed that trust in graven images ” 
—i.e. in the appearance of power and in the powerful. 
(4) In the vain beauty of the flesh, Ezek. xvi. 15, “ But thou 
didst trust in thine own beauty, and playedst the harlot be- 
cause of thy renown, and pouredst out thy fornication upon 
every one that passed by.” (5) In the fortification of towers 
and walls, Deut. xxviii. 52, ** And he shall besiege thee 
in all thy gates until thy high and fenced walls come 
down wherein thou trustedst in all thy land.” (6) In the 
invocation of demons, Deut. xxxi. 37, * Where are their 
gods, their rock in whom they trusted?” (7) In intercourse 
with that which is outward and unreal, Job viii. 13, “ The 
hypocrite’s hope shall perish; whose hope shall be cut off, 
and whose trust shall be a spider’s web.” From which trust 
may Christ deliver us. 




“ They bring unto Him one that was deaf and had an impediment in 
his speech, and they besought Him to put His hands upon him.”— 
S. Mark vii. 32. 

In this Gospel three points are characteristically noted. 
Firstly, that the infirmity of every sinner is great and mani- 
fold, “Deaf and had an impediment in his speech." Secondly, 
the means which are necessary for the healing, * And they 
besought Him,” &c. ‘Thirdly, the varied benefit that results 
from his being healed, * His ears were opened and the string 
of his tongue loosed." 

I. On the first head, it is to be noted, that every sinner 
falls under three severe infirmities when he lapses into deadly 
sin. (1) Blindness, through the darkening of the mind, 
“Their own wickedness hath blinded them," Wisd. ii. 21. 
* Having the understanding darkened through the blindness 
of their heart . . . to work all uncleanness with greediness,” 
Ephes. iv. 18, 19. (2) Deafness, through the rebellion of 
disobedience, * Who is blind but my servant? Or deaf as 
my messenger," Isa. xlii. 19. ** They are like the deaf adder 
that stoppeth her ears,” Psalm lviii. 4. (3) Dumbness, 
through the concealing of their sins, **'They are all dumb 
dogs, they cannot bark," Isa. lvi. 10. ‘Though wickedness 
be sweet in his mouth, though he hide it under his tongue,” 
Job xx. 12. Upon these three infirmities the Gloss. upon 
the Gospel remarks, “The human race, as if it were one 
man, being corrupted by different plagues, is blinded in a pro- 
toplast: whilst it sees it is blind; whilst it hears it is deaf; 
whilst it speaks it is made dumb." 

II. On the second head, it is to be noted, that two circum- 
stances united for the healing of this infirm one, and that 
they point out the three things which are necessary for the 
curing of the sinner. (1) The prayer of the Saints and of 
the Church, “ And they benefit him.” ‘If any man see his 
brother sin... . ; he shall ask," S. John v. 16. (2) The 
reception of the gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit, * Put 



His fingers into his ears.” Gloss. upon Holy Gospel, ** He 
puts the fingers into the ears, when, through the Holy Spirit, 
He opens the ears of the heart for understanding and receiv- 
ing of the words of salvation." ‘ Being purified freely by 
His grace through the redemption which is in Christ Jesus," 
Rom. iii. 24. (3) The operation of repentance, which con- 
sists of three parts. Firstly, of grief of heart, “ Looking 
up to heaven He sighed.” So He taught us to groan for 
ourselves or for our offences, *I am weary with my groan- 
Ing 39 I water my couch with my tears," Ps. vi. 6. 
Secondly, of confession by the mouth, “The string of his 
tongue was loosed." The string of the tongue of the sinner 
was loosed when he confessed his sin, **Confess your faults 
one to another," S. James v. 16. Thirdly, in fulfilling the 
commands of God and the priest, * His ears were opened," 
&c. The ears of the sinner were opened when he obeyed 
the precepts of God and the priest by fulfilling them, making 
satisfaction for them, ‘ Obey them that have the will over 
you, and submit yourselves; for they watch for souls, as 
they that must give account,” Heb. xiii. 17. 

III. On the third head, it is to be noted, that a threefold 
benefit follows upon the conversion of the sinner. (1) That 
he is liberated from all spiritual infirmity, “ The string of 
his tongue was loosed and he spoke plain." ‘ Return ye 
backsliding children, and I will heal your backslidings,” 
Jer. iii. 22. (2) Because God is praised on this account, 
* By so much the more, a great deal they published it.” 
* Deliver me from bloodguiltiness, O God . . . my tongue 
shall sing aloud of Thy righteousness,” Ps. li. 14. (3) Be- 
cause the power and goodness of God is declared, ** He hath 
done all things well: He maketh both the deaf to hear and 
the dumb to speak.” 










“ To Abraham and his seed were the promises made."— Gal, iii. 16. 

In these words it is shown that heavenly promises are 
made to those who seek with all their powers to. be like 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that seven things 
are pointed out of Abraham, in which every Christian ought 
to imitate him. (1) In constancy of faith, Rom. iv. 3, 
* Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for 
righteousness.” Heb. xi. 6, * But without faith it is impos- 
sible to please Him, for he that cometh to God must believe 
that He is, and that He is a rewarder of them that diligently 
seek Him.” (2) In perfect obedience, Gen. xxii. 17, “And thy 
seed shall possess the gate of his enemies, and in thy seed shall 
all the nations of the earth be blessed." Deut. x. 12, “ And 
now, what doth the Lord thy God require of thee but to fear 
the Lord thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him, 
. and to serve the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with 
all thy soul?” (3) In disregard of country. (4) In con- 

E 2 


tempt of pedigree. Of these two, Gen. xii. 1, 2, **'T'he Lord 
said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy 
kindred, and from thy father's house, and to the land that I 
will shew thee," &c. (5) In hospitality and compassion. 
Gen. xviii. 3-5, ** My Lord, if now I have found favour in 
thy sight, pass not away, I pray thee, from thy servant: let 
a little water, I pray you, be fetched, and wash your feet, 
and rest yourselves under the tree; and I will fetch a morsel 
of bread, and comfort ye your hearts; after that ye shall 
pass on." Heb. xiii. 2, “Be not forgetful to entertain 
strangers: for thereby some have entertained angels un- 
awares.” (6) In humility, Gen. xviii. 27, “I have taken 
upon me to speak unto the Lord, which am but dust and 
ashes ;” which are the words of Abraham to the Lord. 
Matt. xi. 29, “Learn of Me, for I am meek and lowly in 
heart.” (7) In fear of God, Gen. xxii. 12, “Lay not thy 
. hand upon the lad, neither do thou anything unto him: for 
now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not 
withheld thy son, thine only son, from Me." Deut. x. 12, 
* And now, what doth the Lord thy God require of 
thee?" &c. In these words we are exhorted to imitate 
Abraham, “If ye were Abraham’s children, ye would do the 
works of Abraham," S. John xiii. 89. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that to those 
who in these things imitate Abraham, the Lord makes seven 
great promises which he made to Abraham. (1) He pro- 
mised to him that He would give him His blessing. (2) That 
He would exalt him. (3) That He would humble his ene- 
mies. (4) That He would honour him among all nations. 
Of these four, Gen. xii. 2, 8. “I will bless thee ;” mark the 
first. ** And make thy name great;” mark'the second. “I 
will curse him that curseth thee;" mark the third. ** And 
in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed ;" mark 
the fourth. (5) That God would protect him in all things. 
(6) That He Himself would be to him as a reward. Of these 
two, Gen. xv. 1, “The word of the Lord came unto Abram 
in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield;" 
mark the first. “And thy exceeding great reward ;" mark 
the second. (7) That God would give to him a land flowing 
with milk and honey, Gen. xiii. 15-17, “The Lord said 
unto Abram, Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the 
place where thou art northward, and southward, and east- 

| 45 


ward, and westward. For all the land which thou seest, 

to thee will I give it, and to thy seed for ever.” 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that the Lord 
gives seven good things to those who imitate Abraham. 
(1) He blesses them, Ephes. i. 3, ‘“ Who hath blessed us 
with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ." 
(2) He glorifies them, Rom. viii. 30, “ Whom He justified 
them also He glorified.” (3) He humbles their enemies, 
Psalm cxxxi. 14, “Turned my hand against their adver- 
saries.” (4) He protects them, Psalm xci. 14, * Because 
He hath set his love upon Me, therefore will I deliver him: 
I will set him on high because he hath known My name." 
(5) He honours them, Psalm cxxxix. 17, “How pre- 
cious are thy thoughts unto me, O God” [friends, Vulg.] 
(6) God Himself gives Himself to them for a reward, He 
who will be all in all He who.will be salvation, life, 
honour, glory, peace, joy, and all good things. (7) He gives * 
to them the land flowing with milk and honey, that is the 
kingdom of heaven, the joy of the humanity and divinity 
making joyful. S. Matt. xxv. 34, “Come, ye blessed of 
My Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you.” To 
which kingdom may we be brought, &c. 



* A certain man went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among 
thieves, which stripped him of his raiment, and wounded him, and 
departed, leaving him half dead.”—S. Luke x. 30. 

In this parable there are three points to be noted. Firstly, 
the manifold misery of sinners: “ A certain man went down 
from Jerusalem.” Secondly, is shown the manifold pity of 
Christ to the sinner: ‘A certain Samaritan, as he jour- 
neyed, came where he was; and when he saw him he had 
compassion on him, and went to him, and bound up his 
wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and set him on his own 


beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 
And on the morrow when he departed, he took out two- 
pence, and gave them to the host, and said unto him, Take 
care of him; and whatsoever thou spendest more, when I 
come again I will repay thee." Thirdly, the rule which is 
given to us for imitation: * Go, and do thou likewise." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that men incur a 
fourfold misery when they sin. (1) They are deprived of 
heavenly glory: “went down from Jerusalem," &c., Gloss. 
That man by the falling away of trifling, to miseries, and to 
the infirmity of this sad and changeable life, descends from 
the heavenly Jerusalem. The wicked shall hide themselves, 
* for fear of the -Lord, and for the glory of His Majesty," 
Isai. ii. 19. (2) The wicked are subjected under wicked 
spirits: *and fell among thieves," Gloss. In the power of 
the evil spirits: “and that they may recover themselves out 
* of the snare of the devil who are taken captive by him at his 
will,” 2 S. Tim. ii. 26 (3) They are despoiled of their good 
possessions ; ** which stripped him of his raiment,” Gloss. It 
refers to the garments of spiritual grace: “into a malicious 
soul wisdom shall not enter; nor dwell in the body that is 
subject unto sin," Wisdom i. 4. (4) They are wounded in their 
natural good things: “and wounded him;” bring wounds 
upon him, that is, sins, by which the integrity of human 
nature is violated. ‘If there were not natural good things 
vices could not harm them; but now what they do is to 
take away integrity, beauty, virtue, and salvation" (S. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, four kinds of com- 
passion are expressed which Christ manifested towards sin- 
ners. (1) Was the taking of human nature: ‘A certain 
Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was; and when 
He saw him he had compassion on him," Gloss. The 
Samaritan is Christ, who was made man for our sakes, that 
He might deliver us from this present life. (2) Was the 
institution of the Sacraments for the salvation of sinners: 
*and bound up his wounds," Gloss. In baptism: “ He 
healeth the broken in heart, and bindeth up their wounds,” 
Psalm cxlvii. 3. (3) Was the infusion of the grace of the 
Holy Spirit: “ pouring in oil," Gloss. The charisma of the 
Holy Spirit: ‘but the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, 
whom the Father will send in My name, He shall teach you 


all things .... whatsoever I have said unto you," S. John 
xiv. 26. “And of His fulness have all we received, and 
grace fer grace. For the law was given by Moses, but 
grace and truth came by Jesus Christ,” S. John i. 16, 17. 
(4) In enduring the bitterness of His passion for sinners: 
* and set Him on His own beast.” Gloss. The beast is His 
flesh, in which He places the wounded, because He “bare 
our sins in His own Body on the tree,” 1 S. Peter ii. 24. 

IH. On the third head it is to be noted, that we ought to 
show a four-fold compassion to the penitent. (1) In suc- 
couring him: “Bear ye one another’s burdens,” &c.: 
. Gal. vi. 2. (2) In praying for him: “If any man sec his 
brother sin a sin which is not unto death, he shall ask, and 
he shall give him life for them that sin not unto death. 
There is a sin unto death: I do not say that he shall pray 
for it,” 18S. John v.16. “Pray one for another, that ye 
may be healed," S. James v.16. (3) In instructing him: “If 
aman be overtaken in a fault, ye which are spiritual re- 
store such an one in the spirit of meekness,” Gal. vi. 1. 
“Brethren, if any of you do err from the truth, and one 
convert him, let him know,” &c., S. James v. 19, 20. “If 
thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him 
his fault between thee and him alone,” S. Matt. xviii. 15. 
(4) In the gift of pardon: “Then came Peter to Him and 
said, Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I 
forgive him? Till seven times? .... Until seventy times 
seven," S. Matt. xviii. 21, 22. “ Reproach not a man that 
turneth from sin," £e, turning from sin to repentance; 
* But remember that we are all worthy of punishment," 
Ecclus. viii. 5. 



* But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, 
goodness, faith."— (Gal. v. 22. 

IT is certain that man ought to possess thesé fruits chiefly 
for three reasons. Firstly, on account of necessity, “ Every 


tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down and 
cast into the fire," S. Matt. iii. 10. Secondly, on account of 
their sweetness, because they refresh the mind with ineffable 
delight, “I sat down under His shadow with great delight, 
and His fruit was sweet to my taste," Cant. ii. 3. Thirdly, 
on account of profit, because they confer many benefits. 

I. The first fruit, Love, has three wonderful virtues. 
(1) Beeause the man who eats this fruit is made uncon- 
querable: * Who shall separate us from the love of Christ ? 
Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution . . . in all these 
things we are more than conquerors through Him that loved 
us," Rom. viii. 35-38. (2) Because every good and evil . 
profits him who is refreshed by this fruit: “ We know that 
all things work together for good to them that love God, to 
them that are called aecording to His purpose," Rom. viii. 
28. “ All things;” Gloss, things good and evil. (3) 
Because he who eats such fruit.shall not die eternally: 
* Charity never faileth," 1 Cor. xiii. 8. 

II. The second fruit, Jov, has likewise three great virtues. 
(1) Because the eating of this fruit makes men strong to 
conquer every evil spirit: ‘Spiritual joy is one means of 
eonquering the enemy," S. Anthony. (2) Because it makes 
men live for ever: * No joy above the joy of the heart,” 
Ecclus. xxx. 16. (8) Because it leads those who eat it to 
the glory of the heavenly kingdom: “For the kingdom of 
God is not meat and drink, but righteousness, and peace, 
and joy in the Holy Ghost," Rom. xiv. 17. 

III. The ¿hird fruit, Peace, likewise has three great 
virtues. (1) Because it protects man from all evil: **'The 
peace of God which passeth all understanding shall keep 
your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus," Philipp. iv. 7. 
(2) Because it causes men to become sons of God: ** Blessed 
are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the children of 
God," S. Matt. v. 9. (3) Because in the place where the 
fruit is found God willingly dwells and rests, *In Salem 
[7.e., peace] also is His tabernacle,” Psal. Ixxvi. 2. 

IV. The fourth fruit, LoNG-sUFFERING, or PATIENCE, has 
also three great virtues. (1) Because the eating of it gives 
man wisdom: “ He that is slow to wrath is of great under- 
Standing," Prov. xiv. 29. (2) Because it preserves the soul 
of man: “In patience possess ye your souls," S. Luke xxi. 
19. (3) Because it makes even bitter things sweet, so great 


is its sweetness: “ My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall 
into divers temptations; knowing this, that the trying of 
your faith worketh patience. But let patience have her 
perfect work, that ye may be perfect and entire, wanting 
nothing,” S. James i. 2-4. 



“There met Him ten mon that wero lepors, which stood afar off."— 
S. Luke xvii. 12. 

THREE points are characteristically noticed in this Gospel. 
Firstly, the number of the sinners, * ten men." Secondly, 
the remedy for their healing, “there met Him.” Thirdly, 
the remedies which are necessary to those who are cured of 
sin, ** one of them when he saw that he was healed." 

To consider, now, the difference and number of the 
sinners it is to be noted that the ten lepers may signify ten 
kinds of sins. (1) The first leper is an infidel and a heretic 
who is separated from the society of the faithful and the 
holy: **The Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Command the 
children of Israel, that they put out of the camp every 
leper . . . . and the children of Israel did so, and put them 
without the eamp,” &c., Num. v. 24. (2) The second leper 
is a blasphemer and detractor: * And Miriam and Aaron 
spake against Moses because of the Ethiopean woman whom 
he had married . . . . and they said, Hath the Lord spoken 
only by Moses? Iath IIe not also spoken by us? And 
the Lord heard it. . . . . Wherefore, then, were ye not 
afraid to speak against My servant Moses? . . . . And 
Aaron looked upon Miriam, and behold she was leprous," 
Num. xii. 1, 2, 8, 10. (3) The third leper is gluttonous, 
who taints the air with fotid exhalations, proceeding from 
excessive repletion: *IIe is a leprous man, he is unclean. 
- . . . He shall put a covering upon his upper lip, and 
shall cry, Unclean, unclean,” Levit. xiii. 44, 45. (4) The 


fourth leper is the avaricious man, who is ever infected with 
an immoderate desire of possessing: this was the leprosy of 
Gehazi : “ Is it a time to receive money, and to receive gar- 
ments, and oliveyards . . . . . the leprosy therefore of 
Naaman shall cleave unto thee, and unto thy seed for ever," 
2 Kings v. 26, 27. (5) The fifth leper is the proud man, 
who with a swelling mind exalts himself against the Lord 
and Christ. Such was Naaman, King of Syria, and being 
very rich, and “also a mighty man in valour, but he was a 
leper," 2 Kings v. 1. (6) The sixth leper is the ambitious man, 
who desired honours and dignities: such an one as Uzziah, 
who took upon himself the honour of High Priest: “ He 
iransgressed against the Lord his God, and went into the 
temple of the Lord to burn incense . . . . and while he was 
wroth with the priests the leprosy rose up in his forehead 
before the priests," 2 Chron. xxvi. 16-20. (7) The seventh 
leper is the hypocrite or vainglorious, who foolishly prides 
himself on his good things: such was the leprosy of Simon 
the Pharisee: ** When Jesus was in Bethany in the house of 
Simon the leper," S. Matt. xxvi. 6. (8) The eighth leper is the 
sensual man, who contaminates creatures with the issue of 
his uncleannesses: ** What man soever of the seed of Aaron 
is a leper, or hath a running issue, he shall not eat of the 
holy things until he be clean," Levit. xxii. 3. (9) The ninth 
leper is a homicide: such as was Joab, upon whom the wrath 
of God came because he slew Abner: ** Let there not fail from 
the house of Joab one that hath an issue, or that is a leper,” 
2 Sam. iii. 29. (10) The tenth leper is he who is obstinate 
and desperate, and who finally sins: ** When the plague of 
leprosy is in a man . . . . if the rising be white in the skin, 
and it have turned the hair white . . . . it is an old 
leprosy,” Levit. xii. 9-11. S. Jerome observes, that he 
who despairs of pardon for sin is more bound by his despera- 
tion than by the sin which he has committed. Desperation 
increases despair, and is a greater tyrant than any sin. He 
who wishes to be cured from sin’s leprosy runs to the 
fountain of precious blood, which the ineffable charity of 
our Lord Jesus Christ opened for us: Who washed us in it, 
and will cleanse all those who fly unto Him from the leprosy 
of all sin. “ Unto Him that loved us and washed us from 
our sins in His own blood . . . . to Him be glory and 
dominion for ever and ever. Amen.” Rev. i. 5, 6. l 




“ And let us not be weary in well doing."— Gal. vi. 9. 

IN these words the Apostle lays down three propositions. 
Firstly, he exhorts that we should do good, **In well doing." 
Secondly, that we should not fail of good works, ‘Let us 
not be weary.” Thirdly, he places before us the reward, 
* In due season we shall reap." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that we ought to do 
good for three reasons. (1) Because all things naturally 
teach us to do good, and they teach this in a three-fold 
manner. Firstly, because all things are good, * And God 
saw everything that He had made, and behold it was very 
good," Gen.i.8J. Sinners can never sufficiently blush when 
placed in so great a multitude of creatures which are all 
good, whilst they themselves are evil. Secondly, because all 
things naturally do good, for whatever the creature gives to 
itself is an indication of the goodness of themselves and of the 
Creator. S. Dionysius says that God is the effusion of good 
to Himself ; S. Augustine, that it is a great indication of the 
Divine goodness that which every creature thinks to give to 
itself. Thirdly, because all things naturally desire good, and 
tend to good; so Philo says, that good is that which is 
desired by all. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that there are 
three things which chiefly enable man to persevere in good. 
(1) Constant and devoted prayer, by which man implores 
the help of God lest he should give way under temptations, 
* Watch and pray lest ye enter into temptation," S. Matt. 
xxvi. 41. (2) Continuous fear; for immediately a man 
ceases to fear he fails to perform good works, ** Unless a 
man hold himself diligently in the fear of the Lord, his 
house shall be soon overthrown,” Ecclus. xxvii. 8. Inter- 
pret, “the fear of the Lord," the custody of life; ‘ soon,” 
i.e., unforeseenly ; ** his house shall be overthrown,” i.e., his 
earthly dwelling, or the hope of earthly things. (3) The 
avoiding of small sins which are the occasion of deadly sins, 


and frequently overthrow the edifice of good works. “Thou 
hast avoided great things," says S. Augustine, * take heed that 
thou be not overwhelmed in the sand ;" i.e., by small things. 
* He that contemneth small things shall fall by little and 
little," Ecclus. xix. 1. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that the Apostle 
states three things. (1) He places the reward as suitable to 
him who receives it, *in due time," Gloss. In that time 
in which it is most meet and convenient; the congruous 
time will be the day of judgment, in which each will receive 
according to what he hath done, ** When I shall receive the 
congregation [ Vulg. time] I will judge uprightly.” (2) He 
notes the plenteousness of the reward, “ We shall reap. S 
In reaping abundance is noted, “ Shall doubtless come again 
with rejoicing, bringing his sheaves with him,” Psal. exxvi. 6. 
“ He which soweth bountifully shall reap also bountifully,” 
2 Cor. ix. 6. ‘Great is your reward in heaven,” S. Matt. 
v. 12. (3) He places the eternity of the reward, “ We faint 
not,” “And your joy no one taketh from. you," S. John 
xv. 22. ‘And these shall go into everlasting punishment, 
but the righteous into life eternal,” S. Matt. xxv. 46. 


* No man can serve two masters,”"—S. Matt. vi. 24. 

Tue Lord Jesus Christ shews in these words that God 
alone is to be served, and that no one is to be obeyed in 
opposition to God, and that no one is to be hindered from 
serving God, “ Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and 
Him only shalt thou serve," S. Matt. iv. 10. There are five 
reasons on account of which we ought to serve God. 

I. Firstly, we ought to serve God on the ground of con- 
gruity ; for all things serve Him, whence it is sufficiently 
congruous that man also should serve Him, “ They con- 
tinue this day according to Thine ordinances, for all are Thy 
servants,” Psa. cxix. 91. But all things serve God in a 
three-fold manner. (1) By precepts given to them from the 
Creator Himself for their fulfilling, * He hath also estab- 

e 53 

lished them for ever and ever; He hath made a decree 
which shall not pass," Psa. cxlviii. 6. (2) In punishing 
those that rebel against the Creator. (3) In shewing kind- 
nesses to His friends. Of these two, Wisdom xvi. 24, “ For 
the creature that seryeth Thee, Who art the Maker, in- 
creaseth his strength against the unrighteous for their punish- 
ment, and abateth his strength for the benefit of such as 
put their trust in Thee." 

II. Secondly, we ought to serve God because He alone 
has in us the right of possession, as being the true Lord. “I 
am Thy servant, and thé son of Thine handmaid,” Psa. cxvi. 
16. But the Lord possesses in us a three-fold right. (1) The 
right of creation, “ For He is our God, and we are the people 
of His pasture," Psa. xlv. 9. (2) By the right of purchase, 
* Ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible 
things, as silver and gold . . . . but with the precious 
Blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish,” 1 S. Peter 
i. 18, 19; “Ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify 
God in your body and in your spirit, which are God's," 
1 Cor. vi. 20. (3) By right of the support of life, “ Who 
giveth food to all flesh," Psa. cxxxvi. 25. 

III. Thirdly, we ought to serve God on account of the 
dignity of serving Him, for He confers a three-fold profit 
in serving Him. (1) A warlike triumph, “Thou there- 
fore endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ,” 
2 S. Tim. ii. 3; “Is there any number of Ilis armies?” 
Job xxv. 3. (2) The priestly dignity. (3) Regal majesty. 
Of these two, ‘‘ And hast made us unto our God kings and 
priests: and we shall reign on the earth," Rev. v. 10; 
* But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an 
holy nation, a peculiar people," 1 S. Peter ii. 9. For to 
serve God is to reign. 

IV. Fourthly, we ought to serve Him on account of the 
necessity of so doing; and a three-fold necessity is laid 
upon us to serve God. (1) Because he who is unwilling to 
serve God subjects himself to the servitude of his enemies. 
(2) Because he suffers the loss of every good thing. 
(3) Because he is altogether weighed down under manifold 
miseries. Of these three, * Because thou servedst not the 
Lord thy God with joyfulness, and with gladness of heart, 
for the abundance of all things; therefore shalt thou serve 
enemies which the Lord shall send against thee, in hunger, 

54 * 

and in thirst, and in nakedness, and in want of all things; 
and He shall put a yoke of irom upon thy neck until He 
have destroyed thee," Deut. xxviii. 47, 48. 

V. Fifthly, we ought to serve God for the sake of our 
advantage; for many profitable things flow to man from the 
service of God. But here three are noticed. (1) Libera- 
. tion from all enemies, * But the Lord your God ye shall 
fear; and He shall deliver you out of the hands of all your 
enemies,” 2 Kings xvii. 39. (2) Ineffable exultation of 
heart, *Serve the Lord with gladness, come before His 
presence with singing," Psa. c. 2. (3) The eternal fruition 
of all joys, ‘Behold, My servants shall eat, but ye shall 
be hungry; behold, My servants shall drink, but ye shall be 
thirsty ; behold, My servants shall rejoice, but ye shall be 
ashamed; behold, My servants shall sing for joy of heart,” 
Isai. lxv. 13, 14. ** Where I am there also shall My servant 
be,” S. John xii. 26. For Jesus was at the right hand of 
the Father, that is in the highest good things of the Father, 
and there will * He place those who serve Him.” ** Blessed 
is that servant whom the Lord, when He cometh, shall find 
so doing. Verily I say unto you, that He shall make him 
ruler over all His goods," S. Matt. xxiv. 46, 47. '* Well 
. done, good and faithful servant .... enter thou into the 
joy of thy Lord," S. Matt. xxv. 28. To which joy may 
we be brought, &c. 


* May be able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth, and 
length, and depth, and height." —. Ephes, iii. 18. 

In these words four things are noted, which are necessary 
to us for salvation. Firstly, charity, by which we love 
our friends and enemies: ‘‘ What is the breadth," Gloss. 
Which signifies the expansive nature of charity, which ex- 
tends even to our enemies. Secondly, perseverance, that 
we finally continue in charity; ‘and length;" Gloss. 


That which is the length of charity is the length of per- 
severance. Thirdly, right intention, that we may set before 
ourselves God only as the reward of our actions." ** And 
height." This is that which lifts the soul on high, that God 
may be expected for a reward. Fourthly, that we may not 
fail in all these things through pride. ‘The depth:” it is 
humility which places man in the lowest state in regard to 
man, but in the highest state in relation to God.  ** He that 
- humbleth himself shall be exalted,” S. Luke xviii. 14. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that for three 
reasons we ought chiefly to love our enemies. (1) On 
account of the precept, “ But I say unto you, love your 
enemies; bless them that curse you, &c. .... That ye 
may be the children of your Father which is in heaven," 
S. Matt v. 44, 45. (2) On account of the example of God: 
* God commendeth His love towards us, in that, while we 
were yet sinners, Christ died for us. ..... For if, when 
we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death 
of His Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved 
by His life,” Rom. v. 8-10. (3) On account of our profit ; 
for charity towards our enemies causes us to become sons of 
the Most High God: ‘Pray for them which despitefully 
use you, and persecute you," &c., S. Matt. v. 44. 

FI. On the second head it is to be noted, that for three 
reasons we ought to persevere in good. (1) That we may 
avoid blame, since he is greatly blamed who begins and does 
not persevere: * For which of you, intending to build a 
tower, sitteth not down first, and counteth the cost, whether 
he have sufficient to finish it? Lest haply, after he hath 
laid the foundation, and is not able to finish it, all that 
behold it begin to mock him, saying, This man began to 
build, and was not able to finish,” S. Luke xiv. 28-30. 
(2) That punishment may be avoided; for he deserves a 
greater punishment who, having tasted how sweet it is to 
perform good works, has not persevered in them. ‘For it 
had been better for them not to have known the way of 
righteousness, than after they have known it, to turn from 
the holy commandment delivered unto them. But it is hap- 
pened unto them, according to the true proverb, the dog is 
turned to his own vomit again; and the sow that was washed 
to her wallowing in the mire," 2 S. Peter 21, 22. (3) On 
account of the reward to be acquired, for the reward is 


earned by perseverance alone: “ He that endureth to the 
end shall be saved,” S. Matt. x. 22. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that for two 
reasons we ought to expect God alone to be our reward. 
(1) Because He alone is the true reward: “I am thy shield 
and thy exceeding great reward,” Gen. xv. 1. S. Augus- 
tine says, that God will be the reward of all in all, because 
He will be to us life and salvation, strength and plenty, 
honour and glory, peace and joy, and all good things. 
(2) Because He will be an eternal reward: “This is life 
eternal, that they might know Thee, the only true God, and 
Jesus Christ, whom Thou hast sent,” S. John xvii. 3. 

IV. On the fourth head it is to be noted, that humility, in 
three ways, preserves man in good. (1) By defending him 
from his enemies: “The Lord preserveth the simple: I 
was brought low, and He helped me," Psalm cxvi. 6. 
(2) By promising increase of grace: ‘God resisteth the 
proud, but giveth grace unto the humble,” S. James iv. 6. 

'(8) By leading man to eternal glory: ‘“ Honour shall up- 
hold the humble in spirit,” Prov. xxix. 23. To which 
honour may we, &c. 



* And when He had given thanks, He distributed to the disciples, and 
the disciples to them that were set down.”— S. John vi. 11. 

Tne Gloss. says that Christ, having given thanks, teaches 
us to give thanks for three benefits. Firstly, for corporeal 
benefits. Secondly, for spiritual benefits. Thirdly, for 
eternal benefits. 

I. On the frst head it is to be noted, that we ought to 

x e thanks for corporeal benefits, for three reasons. 
oe He ordained that they should ‘be in the gift of 
: “Giving thanks always for all things unto God 


and the Father, in the Name of our Lord Jesus Christ," 
Ephes. v. 20. (2) Because He preserves them to nature by 
removing the evil from them: “ And they that before had 
been wronged, gave thanks, because they were not hurt 
now; and asked this gift, that there might be a difference. 
Therefore they received a burning pillar of fire for a guide of 
the way which they knew not," Wis. xviii. 2, 3. (3) Because 
He nourishes it by refreshing it with bodily food: * Now 
the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some 
shall depart from the faith, &c. ..... and commanding to 
abstain from meats, which God created to be received with 
thanksgiving...... For every creature of God is good, and 
nothing to be refused. .... For it is sanctified by the word 
of God and prayer,” 1 S. Tim. iv. 1-6. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that we ought in 
like manner, for three reasons, to give thanks to God for 
spiritual benefits. (1) Because He sanctifies us by conferring 
grace: ‘Giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made 
us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in 
light: Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, 
and hath translated us into the kingdom of His dear Son, in 
Whom we have redemption through His blood,” Colos. i. 
12-15. (2) Because He instructs us, teaching by His word: 
* For this cause also we thank God without ceasing, because, 
when ye received the word of God, which yc heard of us, 
ye received it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, 
the word of God, which effectually worketh also in you that 
believe," 1 Thess. ii. 13. (3) Because He refreshes the soul 
in granting to it the food of the Eucharist: ‘ And He took 
bread and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, 
saying, This is My Body, which is given for you," S. Luke 
xxii. 19. Inasmuch as Christ gave us His Body, with 
thanksgiving we ought to receive that ineffable food. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that we ought 
likewise to give thanks, in a three-fold manner, for eternal 
benefits. (1) For the liberation of the just from eternal 
death: “Giving thanks unto the Father, &c., Who hath 
delivered us from the power of darkness,” Colos. i. 13. 
(2) For the just condemnation of the profane; for the high 
glorification and dignity of the saints. Of these two: ** The 
four-and-twenty elders, which sat before God on their seats, 
fell upon their faces, and worshipped God, saying, We give 



Thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, 
and art to come; because Thou hast taken to Thee Thy 
great power, and hast reigned. And the nations were 
angry, and Thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, 
that they should be judged, and that Thou shouldest give 
reward unto Thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, 
and them that fear Thy Name," Rev. xi. 17, 18. 


“ Endeavouring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace."— 
Ephes. iv. 3. 

Nore that the Apostle raises three points upon these 
words. Firstly, he exhorts us that we should preserve 
unity: * Endeavouring to keep," &c. Secondly, he places 
before us the manner of this keeping: ‘in the bond of 
peace." Thirdly, he exhorts us to earnest desire towards 
both: ** Endeavouring." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that a three-fold unity 
is necessary for us. (1) Intellectual unity, by means of a 
common faith. (2) Unity of the affections, through a right 
desire of concord. Of these two: “Let us walk by the 
same rule," in relation to the first. ‘Let us mind the 
same thing," in relation to the second, Philip. iii. 16. 
(3) Unity of conversation, through a uniform upright- 
ness of conduct: **God setteth the solitary in families," 
Ps. lxviii. 6. * And the multitude of them that believed 
were of one heart and of one soul: neither said any of them 
that ought of the things which he possessed was his own," 
&c., Acts iv. 32. All things were common with them, be- 
cause they were of like conversation. 

II. On the second head itis to be noted, that the holy 
ought to be tied together by a three-fold bond. (1) By the 
bond of wisdom: “ Bow down thy shoulder, and bear her, 
and be not grieved with her bonds," Ecclus. vi. 25. Her, 
i.e., wisdom; “be not grieved,” &c., not bearing her wearily 


and irksomely. (2) With the bond of love: “ Above all 
these things put on charity, which is the bond of perfect- 
ness," Colos. iii. 14. (3) In the bond of peace: “Let the 
peace of God rule in your hearts,” Id. 15. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that they who 
wish to preserve unity must have the five virtues of which 
the Apostle makes mention in this Epistle. (1) Humility, 
that no one should exalt himself over another, for this often 
makes a cause of discord: ** He that is of a proud heart 
stirreth up strife,” Prov. xxviii. 25. (2) Meekness, lest any 
should do injury to others, which is likewise a cause of dis- 
sension: ‘‘Shewing all meekness unto all men," S. Tit. 
iii. 2. (3) Patience, that imposed injuries may be patiently 
sustained, and by patience a brother may be won back again 
to concord : ** Be patient toward all men. See that none render 
evil for evil unto any man: but ever follow that which is 
good, both among yourselves and to all men," 1 Thess. v. 14, 
15. (4) Forbearance, that the infirmities of companions may be 
supported and tolerated: **Bear ye one another's burdens," 
Gal. vi. 2. (5) Charity, “in love;” for mutual services are 
nourished of and by charity. ** By love serve one another. 
For all the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this: Thou 
shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. But if ye bite and 
devour one another, take heed that ye be not consumed one 
of another," Gal. v. 13-15. 



“ For whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth 
himself shall be exalted.”—S. Luke xiv. 11. 

Tue Lord in these words offers four points for our con- 
sideration. Firstly, He exhorts that we should flee from 
the sin of pride: ** Whosoever exalteth himself." Secondly, 
He adds the punishment of the proud: ‘Shall be abased." 
Thirdly, He admonishes us to the grace of humility: ** He 
that humbleth himself." Fourthly, He shows the reward of 
humility: “ Shall be exalted.” 

F 2 


I. On the first head it is to be noted, that the proud per- 
versely exalt themselves in three ways. (1) By foolishly 
lifting themselves up against God: “ He runneth upon Him 
[God], even on His neck, upon the thick bosses of His 
bucklers: because he covereth his face with his fatness, and 
maketh collops of fat on his flanks,” Job. xv. 26, 27. And 
again: “If thou turnest thy spirit against God, and lettest 
such words go out of thy mouth," Id. 18. ** The tumult 
of those that rise up against Thee increaseth continually," 
Ps. Ixxiv. 23. (2) By foolishly pleasing themselves: 
“God therefore being forsaken, man seeks to exist for 
himself, that is to please himself. He does not now be- 
come absolutely nothing, but he approaches to nothingness; 
whence the proud, according to the Holy Scriptures, are 
called by another name, the ‘self-pleasers’ (Authades)," 
S. August., City of God, xiv. 13. (3) By arrogantly pre- 
ferring themselves before others: ‘The wicked in his pride 
doth persecute the poor," Ps. x. 2. S. Augustine asks, What 
is pride, except it be the desire of a false exaltation? Of 
these three: * Why doth thine heart carry thee away?” 
By lifting thee up: behold the first. ** And what do thine 
eyes wink at?” By pleasing thyself, ‘that thou turned thy 
spirit against God:” behold the third. Job xv. 12, 13. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the proud 
are punished in a three-fold manner. (1) Because they 
are cast down from their pride: ‘The tumult of those 
that rise up against Thee increaseth ¢ontinually,” Ps. Ixxiv. 
23. (2) Because they are confounded in the sight of all 
men: “Therefore will I change their glory into shame,” 
Hos. iv. 7. * All that forsake Thee shall be ashamed," 
Jer. xvii. 19. Again: ‘They shall be greatly ashamed . ... 
their everlasting confusion. shall never be forgotten," Jer. 
xx. ll. ‘Ephraim shall receive shame, and Israel shall 
be ashamed of his own counsel," Hos. x. 6. (3) They will 
be punished eternally: * How much she hath glorified her- 
self and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give 
her: for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no 
widow, and shall see no sorrow. "Therefore shall her plagues 
come in one day, death and mourning, and famine; and 
she shall be utterly burned with fire," Rev. xviii. 7, 8. 
* Cast abroad the rage of thy wrath: and behold every 
‘ne that is proud, and abase him. Look on every one 


that is proud, and bring him low,” Job. xl. 11, 12. Again: 
* Hide them in the dust together, and bind their faces in 
secret," Id. 13. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that we ought to 
be humbled in a three-fold manner. (1) In ourselves, by 
the knowledge that we are nothing. S. Gregory says, that 
humility is the emptying from ourselves of our own under- 
standing. (2) By contempt, if any humble person can be 
made much of ; if any lowly person can be brought into repute. 
It is easy, indeed, to place a veil before the eyes, and to 
wear poor clothing, and to walk with the head bowed down; 
but patient endurance of wrong proves who is truly humble. 
(3) We ought to humble ourselves by submitting ourselves to 

: “Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man, for the 
Lord's sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme, or unto 
governors, as unto them that are sent by Him for the 
punishment of evil-doers, and for the praise of them that do 
well,” 1 Pet. ii. 13, 14. 

IV. On the fourth head it is to be noted, that the Lord 
will, in a three-fold way, exalt him who humbles himself. 
(1) By conferring on him the power of judgment: “ Then 
answered Peter, and said unto Him, Behold, we have for- 
saken all and followed Thee; what shall we have therefore ? 
And Jesus said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That ye 
which have followed Me, in the regeneration when the Son 
of Man shall sit in the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit 
upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel,” 
S. Matt. xix. 27, 28. (2) In conferring royal dignity: “ He 
raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and lifteth up the beggar 
from the dunghill, to set them among princes, and to make 
them inherit the throne of glory,” 1 Sam. ii. 8. ‘ He with- 
draweth not His eyes from the righteous: but with kings are 
they on the throne; yea, He doth establish them for ever, 
and they are exalted,” Job. xxxvi. 7. (9) By giving eternal 
glory: * Honour shall uphold the humble in spirit," Prov. 
xxix. 29. “To set up on high those that be low; that 
those which mourn may be exalted to safety," Job. v. 11. 




“I thank my God always on your behalf, for the grace of God which is 
given you by Jesus Christ; that in everything ye are enriched by 
Him."—1 Cor. i. 4, 5. 

. IN that the Apostle gives thanks that they were enriched 
“by Him,” he indicates that there are certain riches which 
are to be desired ; and in that Christ truly threatened the 
rich, he shews that there are certain riches which are to be 
avoided. Whence we learn that there are temporal riches, 
spiritual riches, and eternal riches. Of temporal riches: “If 
riches increase, set not your heart upon them," Ps. lxii. 10. 
Of spiritual riches: * Blessed is the man that feareth the 
Lord, and . . . . Wealth and riches shall be in his house,” 
Ps. cxii. 1-3. Of eternal riches: ** Riches and honour are 
with me; yea, durable riches and righteousness,” Prov. 
viii. 18. “Riches are with me," i.e, the better things; 
* And glory,” i.e., ineffable; **durable riches," i.e., such as 
are exalted ; and righteousness, t.e., such as are according to 

I. In the first place it is to be noted, that temporal riches 
are to be despised chiefly for four reasons. (1) On account 
of their uselessness: * He that loveth abundance shall not 
be satisfied with increase," Eccles. v. 10. ‘ Increase,” fruit, 
i.e., of eternal life. ‘Riches profit not in the day of wrath,” 
Prov. xi. 4. That is, temporal riches do not avail for the 
salvation of man in the day of judgment; ‘ But righteous- 
ness delivereth from death;" £e, the good works of 
righteousness deliver from eternal death. “Set not thy 
heart upon goods; and say not, I have enough for my life. 
. . . For they shall not profit thee in the day of calamity,” 
Ecclus. v. 1-8. ** We brought nothing into the world, and 
it is certain we can carry nothing out,” 1 S. Tim. vi. 7. 
(2) On account of the necessity of leaving them: “They 
have slept their sleep; and none of the men of might have 
found their hands,” Ps. Ixxvi. 5. “He hath swallowed 
down riches, and he shall vomit them up again: God shall 


cast them out of his belly,” Job xx. 15. (3) Because they 
lead those wrongly possessing them to perpetual poverty : 
“The rich man shall lie down, but he shall not be gathered: 
he openeth his eyes, and he is not,” Job xxvii. 19. (4) 
Because the contempt of them leads to eternal life: * And 
everyone that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, 
or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for My 
Name's sake, shall receive an hundred-fold, and shall inherit 
everlasting life," S. Matt. xix. 29. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that by riches 
man sins in four ways. (1) By acquiring them unjustly: 
* He that by usury and unjust gain increaseth his substance, 
he shall gather it for him that will pity the poor," Prov. 
xxvii. 8. “He that oppresseth the poor to increase his 
riches, and he that giveth to the rich, shall surely come to 
want," Prov. xxii. 16. (2) By possessing them covetously : 
“Riches kept for the owners thereof to their," i.e., to the 
hurt of their Lord, “perish by evil travail" Eccles. v. 
18, 14. (3) By being badly spent: «Give not thy sub- 
stance to women," Vulg., Prov. xxxi. 3; “to women,” to 
the corruptions of sin; “ thy substance," i.e., thy body and 
the riches of temporal things. Mystically it signifies thy 
heap of virtues, lest you be contaminated with the corrup- 
tions of vices. “The younger son gathered all together, 
and took his journey into a far country, and there wasted 
his substance in riotous living," S. Luke xv. 13. (4) By 
trusting in them, and becoming proud of them: “He that 
trusteth in his riches shall fall" £e, from eternal life, 
Prov. xi. 28; Gloss. Delighting himself in present good 
things, he does not think about or attend to future things, 
so that in the end he will lack eternal riches: ** Charge them 
that are rich in this world that they be not, highminded, nor 
trust in uncertain riches, but in the living God . . . . lay- 
ing up ir store for themselves a good foundation against the 
time to come, that they may lay hold on eternal life," 
1 S. Tim. vi. 17-19. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that spiritual 
riches are knowledge and virtue; riches of salvation, wis- 
dom, and knowledge: **'The fear of the Lord is his trea- 
sure," Isa. xxxiii. 6, Vulg.; ‘‘ The fear of the Lord driveth 
out sin," Ecclus. i. 27; “They that fear the Lord will 
prepare their hearts, and in His sight will sanctify their 


souls,” Ecclus ii. 20; “The root of wisdom is to fear the 
Lord . . . For he that is without fear cannot be justified," 
Ecclus. xxv. 25-28. Discretion and bonest conversation 
comes to us by knowledge, for it is by knowledge that man 
knows what is due to God, to his neighbour, and to himself. 
God teaches us this knowledge, having weaned us from 
milk, and drawn us from the breasts of pleasures and 
desires. Isaiah asks by the Holy Spirit, the Lord, saying, 
* Whom shall he teach knowledge? And whom shall he 
make to understand doctrine?” And then He answers, 
“Them that are weaned frem the milk, and drawn from 
the breasts" Isa. xxvii. 9. It is wonderful when man 
finds bitterness and tormenting pain in these breasts that he 
does not separate from them. As S. Augustine says, “ Oh, 
Lord, Thou hast mingled my delights with bitterness that I 
might seek to live without bitterness. You, O man, if you 
wish to be taught by the Lord, separate yourself from these 
breasts, because it is said, * Wisdom shall not enter into a 
malicious soul, nor dwell in a body subject to sins,’ Wis. i. 4.” 
And by wisdom the love of God enters into the soul; whence 
S. Bernard says, ** Since a man can learn what he wishes, he 
cannot learn wisdom while he neither fears nor loves God.” 
IV. On the fourth head it is to be noted, that these 
spiritual riches are to be sought for three reasons. (1) On 
account of their immensity: “ For she is an infinite treasure 
to men! which they that use become the friends of God.” 
* For God loveth none but him that dwelleth with wisdom,” 
Wis. vii. 14, 28. ‘She is more precious than rubies, and 
all the things thou canst desire are not to be compared 
unto her," Prov. iii. 15. Gloss.: It is preferred not only 
before earthly, but also before celestial, riches; and charity, 
lastly, is preferred in the very sight itself of the angels, so 
that none need be fearful of poverty who have acquired the 
riches of wisdom. (2) On account of their profit: “The 
ransom of a man's life are his riches; but the poor heareth 
not rebuke,” Prov. xiii. 8. ‘Depart from Me, ye cursed, 
into everlasting fire,’ S. Matt. xxv.41. Or he does not 
sustain, Gloss. He who wishes to redeem his soul from 
future wrath gathers together the riches of good works; for 
if he lacks these, he will not be able to sustain rebuke at the 
day of judgment. The poor shall not be rebuked, but they 
shall partake of the blessing of the inheritance. (3) On 


account of dignity: “The crown," i.e, eternal, “is their 
riches," Prov. xiv. 24. "Their true riches are not earthly 
emoluments nor the froward blindness of the foolish, 
Gloss. The wise, if they have any earthly emolument for 
riches, nevertheless partake of the crown as if for virtues 
which are to them wh the future. ‘But the foolishness of 
fools is folly ;" that is, that they rejoice in present gains 
through envy of that which is eternal. For foolishness is 
often called improvidence. ` € 

V. On the fifth head it is to be noted, that eternal riches 
are to be sought for three reasons. (1) On account of their 
truth, for they are true riches: “ If, brethren, you wish to 
be truly rich, love true riches," S. Bernard. (2) On account 
of their joyousness: * Let the saints be joyful in glory, let 
them sing aloud upon their beds," Ps. cxlix. 5. “Thine 
eyes shall see the King in His beauty," Isa. xxxiii. 17. 
(3) On account of eternity: “ But the just shall live for 
evermore,” Wis. v. 16. ‘And of His kingdom there shall 
be no end," S. Luke i. 38. “Lay not up for yourselves 
treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, 
&c., but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven,” &c., 
S. Matt. vi. 19, 20. The Lord shewed by these three (rust, 
moth, and thieves) that there is nothing safe in the possession 
of riches; for there are certain things, such as silver and 
gold and metals, which rust devours; there are others which 
the moth but not the rust corrupts and eats, such as silken 
and precious garments; there are other things which neither 
rust nor moth eat, but which thieves steal and dig up, such as 
gems and precious stones ; whence it is manifest how uncer- 
tain is every possession of our life, and all other things. The 
Lord persuades us to have our treasures in heaven, but how 
can any one lay up treasures in heaven unless by making 
riches in time? We are able to understand spiritual wicked- 
ness by rust, moth, and thieves. By rust pride is signified, 
for it having invaded souls, turns them from the right way, 
ever shewing itself openly, and expanding itself for human 
praise. By the moth envy is signified, corrupts where it 
invades, and deprives of all integrity. By thieves evil 
spirits are understood, who watch that they may dig up and 
steal the treasures of the mind. In heaven there is no rust; 
there i8 no place there for pride, since the devil and his fol- 
lowers were cast out from thence. In heaven there is no 


moth, no envy, because none there will envy the happiness 
of another In heaven there are no thieves or demons, 
because they have joined their head. S. Chrysostom points 
out vain-glory as being the one thief who steals the treasure 

which is laid up in heaven. : 


“The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou on My right hand, till I make 
Thine enemies Thy footstool.”"—S, Matt. xxii. 44. 

THREE things are noted in these words. Firstly, the 
Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ: ‘The Lord said unto 
my Logd," which is God saying that He had begotten a co- 
equal Son, Who was born not after the order of David, but 
so that He was ever of the Father. Secondly, His great 
dignity according to His human nature: “Sit thou on My 
right hand,” i.e., reign Thou over the best of My good things. 
Thirdly, the power and justice of God: “ Till I make Thine 
enemies Thy footstool;" for it pertains to the justice and 
power of God that He should punish all the enemies of 
Christ. But mark that there are six ways in which the 
Lord will punish His enemies; whence they are foolish who 
wish to be His enemies, and are such, and are not reconciled 
to Him. (1) He will fight against them with the whole 
world: “Until I make thine enemies Thy footstool,” Ps. 
cx. 1. Gloss., Until I subdue them, willing or unwilligg. 
(2) He will shew them His fury: “The Lord will take 
vengeance on His adversaries, and He reserveth wrath for 
His enemies,” Nahum i. 2. (3) He will judge them most 
severely: * If I whet My glittering sword, and Mine hand 
take hold on judgment, I will render vengeance to Mine 
enemies, and will reward them that hate Me," Deut. xxxii. 
41. (4) He will blind them with the uttermost darkness: 
** Darkness shall pursue His enemies,” Nahum i. 8. (5) He 
will render to them eternal punishment: “He smote His 
enemies in the hinder parts; He put them to a perpetual 
reproach," Ps. Ixxviii. 66. (6) He will condemn them to an 
eternal death: ** And now tell you even weeping . . . . the 


enemies of the Cross of Christ: whose end is destruction," 
Philip. iii. 18, 19. “ But those mine enemies, which would 
not that I should reign over them, bring them hither and 
slay them before me," S. Luke xix. 27. S. Augustine says 
that they are the enemies of God not by nature, but by com- 
mitting sins which are opposed to His commands; for all the 
enemies of Christ who are unwilling to obey Him, they avail 
nothing to hurt Him; but they are enemies to themselves by 
their resistance of His will, and not by their power of doing 
Him harm. Although anyone is an enemy, He is able to 
become his friend if he flies to the Blood of Christ: * For 
if when we were enemies we were reconciled to God by the 
death of His Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be 
saved by His life," Rom. v. 10. To which life may we be 



* Neither give place to the devil. Let him that stole steal no more : but 
rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is 
good, that he may have to give to him that needeth.”—Ephes. iv. 27, 28. 

Tae Apostle lays down three propositions in this Epistle. 
Firstly, he exhorts the faithful lest they should give place to 
the devil in their heart: * Neither give place to the devil." 
Secondly, he bids them avoid those things which prepare a 
place for him: ** Let him that stole steal no more." Thirdly, 
he admonishes them that they ought to do that which may 
put the devil to flight > ** But rather let him labour," &c. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that for seven 
reasons we ought not to give place to the devil. (1) Because 
the serpent desires to poison the soul which receives him 
with a most deadly poison: ** The great dragon was cast out, 
that old serpent called the devil, and Satan, which deceiveth 
the whole world," Rev. xii. 9. (2) Because*he is a lion 
seeking to devour souls: ‘Your adversary the devil, as a 
roaring lion, walketh about seeking whom he may devour,” 
1 Pet. v. 8. (3) Because he is envious, bringing envy into 


his dwelling-place: ‘ Nevertheless through envy of the devil 
came death into the world, and they that do hold of his side 
do find it," Wis. ii. 24. (4) Because he is an accuser, ever 
accusing those who receive him: ‘The accuser of our 
brethren is cast down, which accuseth them before our God 
day and night," Rev. xii. 10. (5) Because he is a thief steal- 
ing the gifts of grace from those in whom he dwells: “Then 
cometh the devil and taketh the word out of their heart lest 
they should believe and be saved," S. Luke viii. 12. (6) 
Because he is à homicide, entangling those who receive him 
in perpetual death: * Ye are of your father the devil, and 
the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer 
from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there 
is no truth in him," S. John viii. 44. (7) Because he who 
gives place to the devil, will share a place with him in hell: 
* Depart from Me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for 
the devil and his angels," S. Matt. xxv. 44. It is manifest, 
therefore, that in many ways they are very foolish who give 
place to the devil in their souls, for they receive a serpent, a 
lion, a thief, and a murderer. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the Apostle 
bids us abstain chiefly from seven sins which make a place 
forgthe devil in the heart of man. (1) From theft: “ Let 
him that stole steal no more." (2) From every evil word: 
* Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth." 
(3) From sadness and bitterness: **Let all bitterness be put 
away from you." (4) From wrath: *And wrath." (5) 
From anger: “ And anger.” (6) From clamour: “ And 
clamour." (7) From blasphemy or evil speaking: ** And 
evil speaking." S. Augustine says that blasphemy consists 
in those things which are falsely spoken of God, and there 
fore blasphemy is worse than to sin by swearing falsely, be- 
cause that in swearing falsely witnesses are brought forward, 
but in blasphemy false things are spoken of God Himself. 
For this reason evil speaking or blasphemy is joined “ with 
all malice." 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that the Apostle 
likewise exhorts us in this Epistle to seven virtues, by which 
the devil is Üüriven from the soul (1) To renovation of 
mind: * And be renewed in the spirit of your mind.” We 
ought to be renewed in five ways. Firstly, as an eagle, lay- 
ing down the beak of an evil tongue: “ Wherefore, putting 


away lying, speak every man truth." * My youth is renewed 
like the eagle’s,” Ps. ciii. 5. Secondly, as a stag casting away 
the horns of pride: ** As the hart panteth after the water- 
brooks,” Psalm xlii. 1,* Gloss. The hart is burdened with 
beautiful hair and horns: it attracts or draws up the ser- 
pent by its nostrils; which being swallowed, the poison 
inflames it, whence it most ardently desires the water, on 
drinking which it sheds its horns and hair: * Ho, every 
one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters,” Isa. lv. 1. 
Thirdly, as a hawk accepting the plumage of virtue through 
the grace of the Holy Spirit: * Does the hawk fly by thy 
wisdom and stretch her wings to the south," Job xxxix. 
26. Fourthly, as a serpent casting off the skin of the old 
conversation: ‘Seeing that ye have put off the old man 
with his deeds; and have put on the new man," &c., 

Colos. ii. 9, 10. Fifthly, by taking away the lust of evil 
love :*“ But he knoweth the way that I take: when He hath 
tried me, I shall come forth as gold," Job xxiii. 10. (2) 
He exhorts us to honestlabour : ** But rather let him labour." 
(3) To the enlargement of charity: ** That he may have to 
give," &c. (4) He bids those things be spoken which tend 
to the edification of faith: “That it may minister grace unto 
the hearers." (5) To the showing of kindness: “And be ` 
ye kind one to another" (6) To tender-heartedness: 

* Tender-hearted.” (7) To the mutual forgiveness of in- 
juries: “ Forgiving one another, even as God for Christ's 

Bake hath forgiven you." 

* S. Augustine writes on this Psalm: "Quid aliud est in cervo? 
Serpentes necat, et post serpentium interemptionem majori siti in- 
ardescit: peremptis serpentibus ad fontes acrius currit.” See also 
Alian's “Hist. Animalium," lib. ii, c. 9, where the same phenomenon 
is referred to.— Trans. 




* And He entered into a ship, and passed over, and came into His own 
city. And, behold, they brought to Him a man sick of the palsy, 
lying on a bed: and Jesus seeing their faith said unto the sick of the 
palsy ; Son, be of good cheer; thy sins be forgiven thee."— S. Matt. 
ix. 1, 2. 

ALLEGORICALLY this city, “ His own city," is a heavenly 
city. ‘Glorious things are spoken of thee, O City of God,” 
Ps.lxxxvii. 3. To this city he comes who “enters into a 
ship,” i.e., a holy life; and Jesus, passing beyond the sea of 
this life, “entered into a ship, and passed over.” Morally, 
this ship signifies holiness of life for three reasons. Firstly, 
because of its material. Secondly; because of its form. 
Thirdly, by reason of its end. Everybody ought to hasten 
to this city for three reasons, Firstly, because of its security. 
Secondly, because of its pleasantness. Thirdly, because of 
its abundance. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that the security of 
‘the heavenly city flows from three causes. (1) Because it 
is the most solid city, being strengthened by the firmest 
columns: * Blessed be the Lord; for He hath shewed me 
His marvellous kindness in a strong city,” Ps. xxxi. 21. 
(2) Because there is no wicked there who disturbs its 
security and peace: * Oh, Lord, when Thou awakest Thou 
shalt despise their image," Ps. lxxxiii. 21. (3) Because it 
is established for eternity: * As we have heard, so have we 
seen in the City of the Lord of Hosts, in the City of our 
God; God will establish it for ever," Ps. xlviii. 8. **For 
he looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder 
` and maker is God," Heb. xi. 10. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the pleasant- 
ness of the city arises from three causes. (1) Because it is 
decorated with the fairest walls: “She hath sent forth her 
maidens,” Prov. ix. 2.; i.e. the elected, infirm, and despised 
preachers, that they might call by their word and example 
faithful people to her citadel, and might gather together to 


the walls of charity, to the heavenly high places of the celes- 
tial country. (2) Because it is illumined by perpetual 
light: **'There shall be no night there; and they need no 
candle, neither light of the sun, for the Lord God giveth 
them light," Rev. xxii. 5. (8) Because there will be a won- 
derful climate without heat and without cold, which will ever 
be sustained: ** Neither shall the sun light on them nor any 
heat, for the Lamb which is in the midst of the Throne shall 
feed them and shall lead them unto living fountains of water, 
and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes," Rev. 
vii. 16, 17. * We went through fire and through water; 
but Thou broughtest us out into a wealthy place," Ps. Ixvi. 12. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, ere will be 
an abundance of all good things in this city, WEAt is of all 
joys: * Thine eyes shall see Jerusalem, a quiet |rich, Vulg. | 
habitation," Isa. xxxiii. 20. The joys shall flow together 
from three sources. (1) From the fairness of the Divine 
vision: “ Thine eyes shall see the King in His beauty," Isa. 
xxxii. 17. (2) From the fairness and goodness of the 
angelic society, for angels are its citizens: **Yearecome unto 
Mount Zion, unto the City of the Living God, the heavenly 
Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels," &c., 
Heb. xii. 22, 28. (3) From the continuation of eternal 
solemnity: “ Look upon Zion, the city of our solemnities," 
Isa. xxxiii. 20. "They who are in that city celebrate a per- 
petual feast ; they do nought but rest, see, love, praise, sing, 
which harmonize with the festival. S. Augustine, in his 
book on the City of God, says, “If it is asked, What is the 
occupation of this city? we say, that there we shall take rest, 
and shall see, and shall love, and shall praise, and shall sing. 
For what else shall be our end unless we come to that king- 
dom, of which there will be no end." To which kingdom 
may Almighty God bring us, &c. 



“See that ye walk circumspectly.”—Ephes. v. 15. 

Tue Apostle in this Epistle admonishes us to circumspec- 
tion of walking, and he places circumspection itself in three 
qualities. Firstly, that we should walk discreetly: “ Not as 
fools, but as wise.” Secondly, with quickness: “ Be not 

drunk wi ine.” Thirdly, humbly: “Giving thanks 
always Fo sig unto God and the Father, in the Name 
of our Lord Jesus Christ.” | 

. I. On the first head, the manner of our walking, it is to 
be noted, that discretion in walking is seen in three ways. 
(1) In the election of thethings which are to be done: ** But 
as wise.” (2) In the comparison of the things which are 

selected: ‘ Redeeming the time." (3) In inclining towards 
the proper end: ** Understanding what the will of the Lord 
is » " 

II. In the second place, that despatch in walking consists 
in two things. (1) In the fear of hindrances: * Be not 
drunk with wine.” (2) In the indwelling of that which is 
better: **But be ye filled with the Spirit.” 

III. In the third place, that the humility of spiritual walk- 
ing consists in two things. (1) In relation to God : “ Giving 
thanks ...... unto God," &c. (2) In relation to one's neigh- 
bour: **Subjecting yourselves one to another in the fear of 
God. You see by this how we ought to walk circumspectly." 
The Apostle exhorts us in these words that we should walk 
cautiously in this way of injustice for three reasons. (1) 
Because we walk in the midst of snares: * Thou art going 
in the midst of snares, and walking upon the arms of them 
that are grieved," Ecclus. ix. 20. (2) Because we walk in 
the midst of robbers: ‘As troops of robbers wait for a man, 
so the company of priests murder in the way by consent,” 
Hosea vi. 9. ‘‘ His troops come together, and raise up their 
way against me," Job xix. 12. (3) Because we walk in the 
midst of pits: ‘ And the vale of Siddim was full of slime 
pits,” Gen. xiv. 10. ** Fear, and the pit, and the snare are 


upon thee, oh inhabitant of the earth. And it shall come to 
pass, that he who fleeth from the noise of the fear shall = 
into the pit,” Isa. xxiv. 17, 18. 

II. On the second head, the conditions of our walking, it 
is to be noted— | . 

(1.) In the first place, that we walk in the midst of three 
snares. (1) The iniquity of the proud: “ The proud have hid 
a snare for me ...... they have set gins for me,” Ps. cxlv. 
(2) The lust of the avaricious: “ But they that will be rich 
fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and 
hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition,” 
1 Tim. vi. 9. (3) The perversity of false accusers: ‘ And 
hast preserved my body from destruction, from the snare of 
an unjust tongue, and from the lips of them that forge lies,” 
Ecclus. i. 3. 

(2.) In the second place, that similarly we walk in the midst 
of three kind of robbers. (1) The Devil: “The thief cometh 
not but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy,” St. John 
x. 10. (2) The flatterer: “The thief cometh in, and the 
troop of robbers spoileth without," Hos. vii. 1. (3) Vain- 
glory: S. Gregory says that as a certain robber it joins itself 
to the human traveller in the way; that it seeks those who 
are incautious, and spoils them, especially seeking to despoil 
those who bear treasure publicly in the way. And, again, that 
the appetite for humah praise is a certain robber which 
gladly unites to those who are walking in the right way, that 
their eyes being led away they may be slain by the sword 
which hangs from their path. S. Chrysostom observes that 
vain-glory is the one thief, which robs us of our treasure 
laid up in heaven. The Devil steal souls; the flatterers, 
purity of conscience; vain-glory, the reward of eternal 

(8.) In the third place, that we similarly walk in the midst 
of three pits. (1) Woman, or luxury: “The mouth of a 
strange woman is a deep pit: he that is abhorred of the Lord 
shall fall therein," Prov. xxii. 14. Gloss., the **abhorred 
of the Lord" is the son of wrath. He who embraces the 
words or kisses of a strange woman knocks as at the door 
of an abyss, and unless he draws back his feet, restrain- 
ing his members, he will fall into that penal pit into which 
none except the son of wrath falls down. (2) Gluttony 
and drunkenness: * Who falls into pits," Prov. xxxiii. 29, 



* 74 

Vulg. ‘Who hath redness of eyes? They that tarry 
long at the wine, they that go to seek mixed wine,” 
Prov. xxxiii. (3) The grief of the hypocrites and evil-doers: 
* There shall the great owl make her nest” [Vulg. ** hole” ], 
Isa. xxxiv. 15, Gloss. The owl signifies the double dealers, 
who hide intentions under the thorns of duplicity. ‘“ The 
foxes have holes," &c., S. Matt. viii. 20. On aecount of the 
danger of snares, we ought ever to walk cautiously before 
the Lord, that He Himself may draw our feet out of the 
trap. S. Augustine says, “ I resist the seducers that my feet 
may not be entangled by which I walk in Thy way, and I 
will lift up to Thee the invisible eyes that Thou mayest draw 
my feet out of the snare. Whence dost Thou draw them, 
for if they seek Thee Thou ceasest not to lift them up. But 
I, therefore, run where the snares are scattered abroad.” On 
account of the danger of robbers we ought to walk cautiously, 
armed for walking with all spiritual arms. ‘‘Put on the 
whole armour of God, that ye may be able to stand m the 
evil day, and having done all to stand,” Ephes. vi. 13. On 
account of the dangers of pit-falls, we ought to walk cau- 
tiously, ever walking with gravity and by the light of grace : 
* Let us walk honestly as in the day," Rom. xiii. 30. 



"He sent forth His armies and destroyed those murderers,"— 
S. Matt. xxii. 7. i 

In these words the Lord speaks in a parable of the per- 
dition of the ungodly which is about to be in the judgment, 
and marks here three things. Firstly, the great power of 
God: “He sent forth His armies.” Secondly, His severe 
justice: “ He destroyed His murderers.” Thirdly, the per- 
verse wickedness of the reprobate: * those murderers.” 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that God sends 
great armies in the day of judgment for the punishment of 


the wicked. (1) The army of angels: *' The angels shall comq 
forth, and sever the wicked from among the just, and shall 
east them into the furnace of fire," S. Matt. xiii. 49, 50. 
(2) The army of saints: * The Lord will enter into judg- 
ment with the ancients of His people and the princes 
thereof," Isa. iii. 14. (3) The army of all created things: 
* He will arm the creature for the revenge of His enemies 
. . . . And the whole world shall fight with Him against 
the unwise," Wisd. v. 18-21. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that God will 
destroy the wicked in a three-fold way. (1) Quickly, be- 
cause there will be swift destruction to them: ‘The Lord 
shall send against thee in hunger, and in thirst, and in | 
nakedness, and in want of all things,” Deut. xxviii. 48. 
* When they shall say peace and safety, then sudden 
destruction cometh upon them," 1 Thess. v. 3. (2) Uni- 
versally because no evil one will be able to escape: 
“Thou hast destroyed all them that go a whoring from 
Thee," Ps. lxxiii. 27. ** They were given in marriage until 
the day that Noe entered into the ark, and the flood came 
and destroyed them all. Likewise also, as it was in the 
days of Lot, they did eat, they drank, they bought, they sold, 
they planted, they builded; but the same day that Lot went 
out of Sodom it rained down fire and brimstone from heaven, 
and destroyed them all,” S. Luke xvii. 27-29. (3) Eter- 
nally: *Fear Him which is able to destroy both body and 
soul in hell," S. Matt. x. 28. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that God will 
destroy the reprobate for their perverse wickedness: **He 
will miserably destroy those wicked men," S. Matt. xxi. 41. 
*'Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing," Ps. v. 6. 
* And destroyed those murderers.” Three sins are noted 
here—sin of the heart in maliciousness; sin of the mouth in 
lying ; sin of the deed in murder. For all who sin, whether 
in heart, or word, or deed, unless they repent, will be 
punished by God in eternity, and will be led to the day of 
wrath. From which may the Lord Almighty deliver us. 

a 2 

. 46 



“ Wherefore take unto you the whole armour of God . . . . and having 
done all, to stand." —— Ephes. vi. 13. 

Tas Apostle in these words lays down three propositions. 
Firstly, he exhorts that we arm ourselves with spiritual 
arms: “ Take unto you the whole armour of God." Secondly, 
he shews our need of it: * That ye may be able to with- 
stand.” Thirdly, he gives the reason for it: “‘ Having done 
all, to stand." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that according to 
this Epistle we ought to take five kinds of arms. (1) We 
ought to take the girdle of knowledge: **Stand, there- 
fore, having your loins girt about with truth."  **Gird up 
thy loins like a man,” Job xl. 7. (2) We ought to put on 
the breast-plate of righteousness: * Breast-plate of righte- 
ousness.” ‘He put on righteousness as a breast-plate,” 
Isai. lix. 17. (8) We ought to take the shield of faith: 
* His truth shall be thy shield and buckler. Thou shalt not 
be afraid for the terror by night," Ps. xci. 4, 5. “Your 
adversary the devil as a roaring lion walketh about," &c., : 
158. Pet. v. 8. (4) With the helmet of salvation: “And 
take the helmet of salvation." ‘ An helmet of salvation 
upon His head,” Isa. lix. 17. ‘‘ Putting on the breast-plate 
of faith and love, and for an helmet the hope of salvation; 
for God hath not appointed us to wrath,” &c., 1 Thess. v. 
8,9. (5) The sword of the Word of God: “ The sword of 
the Spirit, which is the Word of God.” ‘For the Word of 
God is quick and powerful, and sharper than any two- 
edged sword,” Heb. iv. 12. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that there are 
five days of evil from which these arms defend us. (1) The 
first day is iniquity: “In the day of good things”—i.e., of 
the present time, in which you are able to obtain eternal 
life—“ be not unmindful of evils; and in the day of evils be 


not unmindful of good things," Ecclus. xi. 27. (2) The 
day of temporal prosperity: “I am not troubled, following 
Thee for my pastor ; and I have not desired the day of man, 
as Thou knowest. That which went out of my lips hath 
been right in Thy sight," Jer. xvii. 16, Vulg. ‘The Lord 
will deliver him in the time of trouble," Ps. xli. 1. (3) The 
day of temporal adversity: ‘Sufficient unto the day is the 
evil thereof,” S. Matt. vi. 34. (4) The day of temptation of the 
devil: ‘“‘ Wherefore should I fear in the days of evil?” i.e., 
in the days of temptation, Ps. xlix. 6. (5) The day of 
judgment: “ Ye that put far away the evil day, and cause 
the seat of violence to come near," Amos vi. 3. It is called 
the evil day because “That is a day of wrath, a day of 
trouble and distress, a day of wasteness and desolation, a 
day of darkness and gloominess, a day of clouds and thick 
darkness, a day of trumpet and alarm against the fenced 
cities, and against the high towers. And I will bring dis- 
tress upon men, and they shall walk with blind men, because 
they have sinned against the Lord: and their blood shall be 
poured out as dust, and their flesh as the dung,” Zeph. i. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that in three ways 
we ought to stand peMect. (1) In purity of heart and body : 
* Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us 
cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, 
perfecting holiness in the fear of God," 2 Cor. vii. 1. (2) 
In the keeping of the commandments of God: “If ye fulfil 
the royallaw according to the Scripture, Thou shalt love 
thy neighbour as thyself, ye do well; but if ye have respect 
to persons ye commit sin, and are convinced of the law as 
transgressors. For whosoever shall keep the whole law, 
&c. .. . . thou art become a transgressor of the law,” 
S. James ii. 8-12. (3) In the reformation of the tongue: 
“ If any man offend not in word, the same is a perfect man, 
and also able to bridle the whole body," S. James iii. 2. (4) 
In love towards God and one's neighbour: “ Perfect love 
‘casteth out fear," 1 S. John iv. 18. “But I say unto you, 
Love your enemies. Bless them that curse you, do good to 
them that hate you, and pray for them that despitefully use 
you and persecute you, that ye may be the children of your 
Father which is in heaven. . . . . Be ye therefore perfect, 
even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect," S. Matt. 


v. 44, 45, 48. (5) In the praise of God and in the giving 
of thanks: ‘ Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings Thou 
hast perfected praise," Ps. vii. 2. To which praise may 
He lead us Who is blessed for evermore. Amen. 



“ Yesterday, at the seventh hour, the fever left him.”—S. John iv. 52. 

MonaALLrY, two things are to be noted in these words. 
Firstly, the infirmity of the sinner: “The fever.” Secondly, 
those things which were necessary for the cure: ** At the 
seventh hour the fever left him." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that sinners labour 
under seven kind of fevers. (1) That which is continuous, 
which is sensuality: “They have committed fornication, and 
have not ceased,” Hosea iv. 10, Vulg.- (2) That which is 
daily, which is gluttony, by which men daily sin: “ They 
are greedy dogs, which can never have enough. .... We 
will fill ourselves with strong drink; and to-morrow shall be 
as this day, and much more abundant," Isai. lvi. 11, 12. 
(3) That which recurs on the third day, and is called the 
- Tertian fever; which signifies anger, from the accession of 
heat: “For as the wood of the forest is, so the fire burneth : 
and as a man's strength is, so shall his anger be," Ecclus. 
xxvii. 12. (4) That which recurs on the fourth day, 
which is guartan, and which signifies that acidity which 
provokes melancholy: “As a moth doth by a garment, and 
a worm by the wood: so'the sadness of a man consumeth 
the heart," Prov. xxv. 20, Vulg. ‘The Lord shall smite 
thee with a consumption, and with a fever, and with an 
inflammation, and with an extreme burning, and with a 
sword, and with a blasting, and with a mildew," Deut. 
xxviii. 22. (5) That which is common to the nations, which 
is avarice, which is difficult or never to be cured. S. Jerome 
observes, that when other vices grow old in man, avarice 


alone grows young. (6) That which is intermittent, which 
is pride, which quickly fails: * When they were lifted up, 
Thou hast cast them down,” Ps, lxxii. 18, Vulg. ‘They 
are exalted for a little while, but are gone and brought 
low; they are taken out of the way as all other, and cut off 
as the tops of the ears of corn,” Job. xxiv. 24. (7) That 
which is putrid: “A sound heart is the life of the flesh, 
but envy the rottenness of the bones,” Prov. xiv. 30. 

IL On the second head it is to be noted, that there are 
seven medicines which heal men of these fevers. (1) A 
devoted hearing of God: * He sent His Word, and healed 
them, and delivered them from their destructions," Ps. cvii. 
20. “For it was neither herb nor mollifying plaster that 
healed them, but Thy Word, O Lord, which healeth all 
things,” Wisd. xvi. 12. (2) In contrition for sin: “ For I 
acknowledge my transgressions, and my sin is ever before 
me," (3) A devoted calling upon God: ** O Lord, 
my God, I cried unto Thee, and Thou hast healed me," 
Ps. xxx. 2. (4) The infusion of faith: ‘And He said to 
the woman, Thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace," S. 
Luke vii. 50. (5) The showing of compassion: “ When 
thou seest the naked, that thou cover him: and that thou 
hide not thyself from thine own flesh. Then shall thy light 
break forth as the morning, and thine health shall spring 
forth speedily," Isai. lviii. 7, 8. (6) The desertion of sin: 
“In returning and rest shall ye be saved," Isai. xxx. 15. 
(7) Perfect contrition of heart: “ Return, ye backsliding 
children, and I will heal your backslidings . ... truly in the 
Lord our God is the salvation of Israel," Jer. iii. 22, 23. 
This is the “seventh hour,” in which the fever leaves the 
sinner altogether. But all these means avail nothing, unless 
they take their efficacy from that sacred medicine which 
heals all our diseases—z.c., the Passion of Christ our, God, 
* Who His own Self bare our sins in His own Body on the 
tree, by Whose stripes ye were healed," 1 S. Pet. ii. 24. 





“That ye may be sincere and without offence, till the day of Christ."— 
Philip. i. 10. 

THe Apostle in this Epistle exhorts us to three things. 
Firstly, to the avoiding of sin: “ That ye may be sincere." 
Secondly, to all love: * Filled with the fruits of righteous- 
ness." Thirdly, to the possession of a right intention: 
* With the glory and praise of God.” 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that three commands 
are given. (1) That we should seek after purity of mind: 
*'Tbat ye may be sincere.” ** Blessed are the pure in heart ; 
for they shall see God," S. Matt. v. 3. (2) That we should 
avoid doing injury to our neighbours: * Without offence: 
giving no offence in anything," 2 Cor. vi. 3. (3) That we 
should persevere in both courses: “Till the day of Christ,” 
i.e., till after death; when the day of man is ended the day 
of Christ begins. ‘He that endureth to the end shall be 
saved," St. Matt. x. 22. The Gloss. treats of this under the 
word *sincere;" without the works of corruption, either to- 
wards ourselves or our neighbours, and to persevere in this 
course till the day of Christ. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the Apostle 
likewise gives three commandments. (1) He exhorts to 
rectitude of mind: * The fruits of righteousness.” S. Anselm 
defines justice to be that rectitude of will which is preserved 
for its own sake. (2) To the having a delight in that which 
is good: ‘ Being filled with the fruits of righteousness; 
which are love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, good- 
ness, faith, meekness, temperance,” Gal. v. 22, 23. (3) To 
the having perfection in good, “being filled:” “Be ye 
therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is 
perfect," S. Matt. v. 48. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that three rewards 
flow from a right intention, for our every action ought to 
have its eye of intention guarded in respect to God. (1). 


That we may believe that every good thing, as if from the 
fount of all good, comes from Him through Jesus Christ: 
* Of His fulness have all we received, and grace for grace ; 
for the Law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came 
by Jesus Christ," S. Johni.16, 17. ** Without Me ye can do 
nothing," S. John xv. 5. (2) That we should make God to 
be praised and honoured in all our actions: * Let your light 
so shine before men, that they may see your good works, 
and glorify your Father, which is in heaven," S. Matt. v. 16. 
(3) That the reward of eternal glory may be given to us for 
our desire to work: “ Unto the glory and praise of God.” 
* Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where 
moth and rust doth corrupt, &c. ...... Where thieves do not 
break through and steal," S. Matt. vi. 19, 20. 



** And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentors till he 
should pay all that was due unto him.”—S. Matt. xviii. 34. 

MoRA tty, by the servant is understood any sinner against 
whom God will be angry in the judgment, and whom He 
will deliver over to eternal torments. Whence three things 
are to be noted in these words. Firstly, the just indignation 
of God against the reprobates: ‘His lord was wroth.” 
Secondly, the severe condemnation of sinners: ‘ Delivered 
him to the tormentors.” Thirdly, the duration of this same 
damnation: * Til he should pay all that was due unto 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that there are four 
classes of men with whom God will be angry in the judg- 
ment. (1) Against those who despise the law of God: 
* Because they have cast away the law of the Lord of Hosts, 
and despised the Word of the Holy One of Israel, therefore 
is the anger of the Lord kindled against His people, and He 


hath stretched forth His hand against them and hath smitten 
them; and the hills did tremble, and their carcases were 
torn in the midst of the streets," Isa. v. 24, 25. (2) He 
will be wroth against those who remain, or persist, in their 
sins unto the end: “Behold, Thou art wroth; for we have 
sinned: in those is continuance, and we shall be saved," 
Isa. lxiv. 5. (9) Against those who abuse temporal riches: 
“I am very sore displeased with the heathen that are at 
ease,” Zach. i. 15. (4) Against those who have no com- 
passion on their neighbours: “For he shall have judgment 
without mercy that hath showed no mercy; and mercy 
rejoiceth against judgment," S. James ii. 13. This can be 
applied to that servant who was unwilling to have com- 
passion on his fellow-servant. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the sinner 
will be tormented by four different tormentors. (1) By 
God: * And when He was come to the other side into the 
country of the Gergesenes there met Him two possessed 
with devils. . . . . And when they were come out they 
went into the herd of swine: and behold, the whole herd of 
swine ran violently down a steep place to the sea and 
perished in the waters," S. Matt. viii. 28-33. (2) By con- 
science: S. Augustine says, “ Thou hast commanded, O Lord, 
and so it is, that every inordinate mind should be a punish- 
ment to itself.” (3) By eternal death; whilst it is said of the 
saints, that their souls “are in the hand of God, and there 
shall no torment touch them," Wisd. iii. 1. “I pray thee, 
therefore, father, that thou wouldst send him to my father’s 
house, for I have five brethren, that he may testify unto 
them, lest they also come to this place of torment,” S. Luke 
xvi. 27, 28. (4) From every creature: “For the creature 
that serveth Thee, Who art the Maker, increaseth his strength 
against the unrighteous for their punishment, and abateth 
his strength for the benefit of such as put their trust in 
Thee," Wisd. xvi. 24. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that we ought to 
repay Him according to the four-fold debt which we owe to 
Him. Firstly, He gave to us the world with its creatures : 
«Thou hast put all things under his feet," Ps. viii. 6. 
Secondly, the body with its senses. Thirdly, the mind with 
its powers. Of these two: ** And the Lord God formed man 
of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the 


breath of life; and man became a living soul,” Gen. ii. 7. 
Fourthly, grace with its operations: ** Wherefore we, receiv- 
ing & kingdom that cannot be moved, let us have grace 
whereby we may serve God acceptably, with reverence and 
godly fear," Heb. xii. 28. (1) Of the world, weought to repay 
Him by giving alms to the poor: ‘ Let it not grieve thee to 
bow down thine ear to the,poor, and give him a friendly 
answer with meekness.” ‘My son, defraud not the poor of 
his living. . . . Turn not thine eye away from the needy, 
and give him none occasion to curse thee," Ecclus. iv. 1, 5. 
* Get thyself the love of the congregation, and bow thy 
head to a great man," Id. v. 7, Gloss. Meekness and 
humility are commended in these words, for the meek 
spurns no one; humility subjects, itself to all, the Christian 
is bound to make himself affable and humble to equals and 
inferiors: * Lord, my heart is not haughty, nor mine eyes 
lofty,” Ps. cxxxi. 1. (2) Of the body, we ought to repay 
Him by restoring it to Him free from defilement. (3) Of 
the mind, repay Him by following the examples of wisdom 
recorded in Wisdom, chap. x. (4) Of the grace, we ought 
to repay Him by seeking to use it to His horfour: “ We 
beseech you that ye receive not the grace of God in vain,” 
2 Cor. vi. 1. He who does not repay these debts in time 
will never be able to repay them in eternity, and therefore 
he will have to suffer torments in the place of the tormentors 
for ever and ever. From which may we be delivered. 



“ For our conversation is in heaven.”—Philip. iii. 20. 

Tue Apostle in these words teaches that the conversation 
of the just is in heaven ; so that if we wish to be like them 
we must not have our conversation about the miseries of this 
present life, but “in heaven.” The Apostle here lays down 
three things in regard to the conversation in heaven. Firstly, 


the reason why we should have our conversation there. 
Secondly, the nature of that conversation. Thirdly, the 
similitude between the conversation of the saints and of the 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that the saints have 
their conversation in heaven for three reasons. (1) For 
security, for he who has his conyersation in heaven is secure 
from the dangers of this troublesome life: *Lay me down 
now, and put me in a surety with Thee; who is he that will 
strike hands with me?" Job xvii. 3. S. Augustine says that 
he who enters into the joy of his Lord is secure, and will 
experience the best condition in the best place. (2) On 
account of delight; for he who has his conversation in 
heaven will have a continuous joy and delight: * For her 
conversation hath no bitterness, nor her company any tedious- 
ness, but joy and gladness," Wisd. viii. 16. Seneca compares 
the mind of the wise to a world above the moon, which is 
ever calm. (3) On account of the necessity that there is for 
all earthly things to pass away. The saints know that all 
the earthly things here quickly are aout to pass away; 
* But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; 
in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, 
and the elements shall meet with fervent heat ..... . Never- 
theless we, according to His promise, look for a new heaven 
and a new earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness," 2 Pet. 
iii. 10, 14. | 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the saints heaven a three-fold conversation. (1) In ever 
thinking over the good things of heaven. (2) In desiring to 
be ever in heaven. Of these two it is said, such an holy 
one is held worthily in the memory of man; he has passed 
ever tó the joy of angels, since in the body only he is placed 
in the present conversation, his true conversation being in 
that heavenly country. (3) The conversation of the saints 
in heaven consists in their living after the manner of heaven. 
The Gloss. on the text being, that our conversation is in 
heaven while we live on earth; because we' have our hope 
there, and because we are like to the angels both in living 
and knowing. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that the conver- 
sation of the saints is like that of the angels in three ways. 
(1) In purity. (2) In simplicity without guile. (3) In 


charity. These three are chiefly seen in the angels: sim- 
plicity in essence, purity in nature, charity in grace. The 
conversation of the saints is also in these three: “For our 
rejoicing is this, the testimony of our conscience, that in 
simplicity and godly sincerity, not with fleshly wisdom, but 
by the grace of God, we have had our conversation in the 
world,” 2 Cor. i. 12. 



“ Master, we know that Thou art true, and teachest the way of God in 
iruth."—S. Matt. xxii. 16. 

Ov& Lord Jesus Christ in these words is commended in 
three ways. Firstly, from the dignity of His mastership: 
* Master." Secondly, from the utility of His doctrine: 
“The way of God." Thirdly, from the equality of His 
teaching: “Thou regardest not the persons of men.” 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that the dignity of 
* Master" belongs to Him for four reasons. (1) Because 
only with Him does truth ever exist: * Ye call me Master 
and Lord: and ye say well, for so I am," S. John xiii. 13. 
(2) On account of the power of teaching: ** When Jesus 
had ended these sayings the people were astonished at His 
doctrine: for He taught them as one having authority, and 
not as the Scribes,” S. Matt. vii. 28, 29. (3) Because He 
alone was able to teach concerning all things: ** Ye have 
‘an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things," 
1 S.John ii. 20. There is no master able to teach all things 
gave Our Lord Jesus Christ: ‘* All wisdom is from the Lord 
God, and hath been always with Him, and is before all 
time," Ecclus. i. 1. (4) Because He alone is able to teach 
the hidden man: * Neither be ye called masters; for one is 
your Master, even Christ," S. Matt. xxiii. 10, Gloss. Be- 
cause He alone gives understanding. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that Our Lord 



Jesus Christ taught us four ways which are greatly profit- 
able. (1) The way of penitence: “ Enter ye in at the strait 

te ...... because strait is the gate and narrow is the way 
which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it," 
S. Matt. vii. 13, 14. “Jesus began to preach and to say, 
Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand," S. Matt. iv. 
17. (2) The way of wisdom: “I have taught thee in the 
way of wisdom, I have led thee in right paths. When thou 
goest thy steps shall not be straitened, and when thou 
runnest thou shalt not stumble. Take fast hold of instruc- 
tion; let her not go,” Prov. iv. 11-14, Gloss. The actions 
of equity when they begin seem to be confined, but when 
they advance they seem already from habit to be spacious, 
and because in base action they labour earnestly they find a 
stumbling-block in.the middle of the course; because sud- 
denly, when they do not foresee, they are seized for punish- 
ment. (3) The way of obedience: * Make me to understand 
the way of Thy precepts,” Ps. cxix. 27. “ A new command- 
ment give I unto you, That ye love one another.e By this shall 
all men know that ye are My disciples, if ye have love one 
to another," S. John xiii. 34, 35. ‘Yet I shew unto you a 
more excellent way. Though I speak with the tongues of 
men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as 
sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal," 1 Cor. xii. 31, xiii. 1. 
* He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His 
paths," Isa. ii. 3. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that Christ is 
no respecter of persons in four particulars. (1) In justify- 
ing: *' Then Peter opened his mouth and said, Of a truth I 
perceive that God is no respecter of persons: but in every 
nation he that feareth [lim and worketh righteousness is - 
accepted with Him," Acts x. 34,35. (2) In teaching: “ And 
teachest the way of God in truth." (3) In punishing: 
& There is no respect of persons with God. For as many as 
have sinned without law, shall also perish without law ..... . 
the doers of the law shall be justified," Rom. ii. 11-14. 
(4) In rewarding: “Knowing that whatsoever good thing 
any man doeth, the same shall he receive of the Lord, 
whether he be bond or free ...... Knowing that your Master 
also is in heaven: neither is there respect of persons with 
Him,” Eph. vi. 8, 9. 




“Giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be 
partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light.”—Coloss. i. 12. 

Tue Apostle teaches us in these words that we should give 
thanks to God the Father for three great benefits which He 
has granted to us through Jesus Christ. The first benefit 
was our justification: ‘“ Partakers of the inheritance.” The 
second benefit is our liberation from the power of the Devil : 
** Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness.” The 
third benefit is translation into the eternal kingdom: “ And 
hath translated us into the kingdom of His dear Son." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that it is a three-fold 
inheritance which God distributes to His saints. (1) Eternal 
predestination: * In whom also we have obtained an inherit- 
ance, being predestinated according to the purpose of Him 
Who worketh all things after the council of His own will ; 
that we should be to the praise of His glory, who first trusted 
in Christ,” Eph. i. 11, 12. (2) Justification: “Unto him 
shall be given the chosen gift of faith, and an inheritance in 
the temple of the Lord," Wisd.iii. 14. (3) Eternal glorifica- 
. tion: *Now is he numbered among the children of God, 
and his lot is among the saints," Wisd. v. 5. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that God in a 
three-fold manner delivers us from the power of the Devil. 
(1) By liberating us from the service of the Devil: ** That 
through death he might destroy him that had the power of 
death, that is the Devil; and deliver them who through fear of 
death were all their lifetime subject to bondage," Heb. ii. 14. 
The Devilis the prince of darkness: ** We wrestle not against 
flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, 
against the rulers of the darkness of this world," Eph. vi. 12. 
(2) By illuminating the darkness of our ignorance by the 
light of His doctrine: ** The people that walked in darkness 
have seen a great light," Isa. ix. 12. ‘“ Who hath called 
you out of darkness into His marvellous light: which in 


time past were not the people, but are now the people of 
God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained 
mercy,” 1 S. Pet. ii. 9, 10. (3) By putting to flight the dark- 
ness of our sins by the light of His powers: ** Ye were some- 
times darkness, but now are ye light in the Lord: walk as 
children of light," Eph. v. 8. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that the Lord 
makes a three-fold translation of the holy ones. (1) He 
translates them from the darkness of exile to the light of 
the vision of His glory: ‘‘ Enoch pleased the Lord, and was 
translated,” Ecclus. xliv. 16. Into paradise, which is the 
place furnishing the vision of God which is the blessedness 
of saints and angels. *' And this is life eternal, that they 
might know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ 
‘Whom thou hast sent.” (2) He translates them from death 
to eternal life: * We know that we have passed from death 
unto life, because we love the brethren," 1 S. John iii. 14. 
(3) He translates them from this wretched state to the in- 
heritance of the heavenly kingdom: ‘ Unto the kingdom of 
His dear Son," &c. 



* And, behold, a woman which was diseased with an issue of blood 
twelve years, came behind Him, and touched the hem of His gar- 
ment,” &c.—S. Matt. ix. 20. 

MORALLY, three things are to observed of this miracle. 
Firstly, a wretchedness of the sinning mind: **Behold, a 
woman which was diseased.” Secondly, the humility of the 
sinning one: “Came behind Him and touched the hem of 
His garment.” Thirdly, the profit of repentance: ** Daughter, 
be of good comfort." 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that in three ways 
the sinner suffers from * an issue of blood." (1) Through 
an excessive love of kindred: ** Hear this, I pray you, ye 
heads of the house of Jacob, and princes of the house of 


Israel, that abhor judgment, and pervert all equity. The 
heads thereof judge for reward, and the priests thereof teach 
for hire, and the prophets thereof divine for money. ...... 
Jerusalem shall become heaps, and the mountain of the 
house as the high places of the forest,” Micah iii. 9, 11, 12. 
(2) Through an issue, the flowing of carnal delights: **De- 
liver me from blood-guiltiness [bloods], O God, thou God 
of my: salvation,” Ps. li. 14. (3) Through the workings of 
any sin, no matter what: * Hear the word of the Lord, ye 
children of Israel: for the Lord hath a controversy with the 
inhabitants of the land, because there is no truth, nor mercy, 
nor knowledge of God in the land. By swearing, and lying, 
and killing, and stealing, and committing adultery, they break 
out, and blood toucheth blood. "Therefore shall the land 
mourn," Hos. iv. 1-3. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that penitence 
consists in three conditions, which are the effects of contri- 
tion. (1) In faith: “Thy faith hath made thee whole." 
* Purifying their hearts by faith," Acts xv. 9. ‘A broken 
and contrite heart, O God, Thou wilt not despise," Ps. li. 17. 
(2) In humility, which is the preparer for confession: 
* Came behind." S. Bernard says, that for a man to make 
a proper confession of his sins is the ninth stage in humility: 
* Confess your faults one to another, and pray one for 
another, that ye may be healed," S. James v. 16. (3) In the 
toil of satisfaction: “Touched the hem of His garment." 
* Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance," S. Matt. 
ii. 8. S. Gregory the Great observes, that anyone who re- 
turns to God with the heart, acquires by repentance a gain 
by so much the greater, as he had suffered loss from his sin. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that a three- 
fold reward is here indicated as flowing from repentance. 
(1) That God turns towards the sinner, against whom He 
was both angry and opposed: ‘Thus saith the Lord of 
Hosts: Turn ye unto Me, saith the Lord of Hosts, and I will 
turn unto you, saith the Lord of Hosts. Be not as your 
fathers, unto whom the former prophets have cried, saying, 
Thus saith the Lord of Hosts: turn ye now from your evil 
ways, and from your evil doings: but they did not hear, nor 
hearken unto me, saith the Lord. Your fathers, where are 
they? and the prophets, do they live for ever?" Zech.i. 3-6. 
(2) That the grace of God is infused into the soul: whence 

H . 


Jesus looked upon Peter (and he wept bitterly), whom He had 
delivered from the sin of denying Him, and did not permit him 
to fall from the elevation of the Apostolate: ‘“ And Peter 
remembered the word of Jesus, Who said unto Him, Before 
the cock crow, thou shalt deny Me thrice. And he went out 
and wept bitterly,” S. Matt. xxvi. 75. For the Lord is as 
the sun, which shining makes the crops to live and to be 
fruitful. * Turn thee unto me, and have mercy upon me,” 
Ps. xxv. 16. (8) That salvation comes from repentance: 
** And the woman was made whole.” ‘Look unto Me, and 
be ye saved, all the ends of the earth," Isa. xlv. 22. 




* Behold, the day is come, saith the Lord, that I will raise unto David a 
righteous Dranch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute 
justice and judgment in the earth."—Jer. xxiii. 5. 

Tue Advent of Our Lord Jesus Christ is predicted in 
these words, about which three things are to be noted. 
Firstly, the congruity of Him coming: “ Behold, the day is 
come ;" for it was congruous that many days should precede 
the Advent of the Lord, during which men might prepare 
themselves for His reception. Secondly, the dignity of Him 
coming: * I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a 
King," &c. Thirdly, the utility of His Advent: ** And shall 
execute justice and judgment in the earth.” 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that five spiritual 
days preceded the Advent of Christ. (1) Was the day of the 
eternal preordination of the Father: ** Whose goings forth 
have been from of old, from everlasting,” Micah v. 2. (2) 
Was the day of the promise made to the Fathers: ** The 
oath which He sware to our Father Abraham, that He 
would grant unto us," S. Luke i. 78, 74. (3) Was the day 
in which this day was prefigured in the Law: “Search the 
Scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternallife: and 


they are they which testify of Me. ...... Had ye believed 
Moses, ye would have believed Me; for he wrote of Me," 
S. John v. 39-46. (4) Was the day of the preaching of Him 
by the prophets: ‘ He hath visited and redeemed His people, 
asais as He spake by the mouth of His holy prophets,” 
S. Luke i. 68, 70. (5) Was the day of the Incarnation of 
Christ: “In that day the mountains shall drop down new 
wine, and the hills shall flow with milk ; ...... and a fountain 
shall come forth of the House of the Lord," Joel iii. 18. 
Of these five can be interpreted the words of Judith: “ Let 
us yet endure five days, in the which space the Lord Our 
God may turn His mercy toward us," Judith vii. 30. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the Prophet 
treats of five things which relate to the dignity of Christ. 
(1) He commends Him from His fairness. (2) From the 
power of His strength. "These two qualities are included in 
the name of David, which signifies that which is desirable to 
the sight, and which is strong of arm. Now, Christ was 
desirable to the sight, on account of His exceeding beauty: 
«Thou art fairer than the children of men," Ps. xlv. 2. 
** Which things the angels desire to look into," 1 Peter i. 12. 
Christ was also strong of arm, on account of His admirable 
fortitude. S. Augustine speaks of Him as being bound in 
hand, and fixed to the Cross, and yet having made war 
against the power of the air. ‘If I speak of strength, lo, 
He is strong," Job. ix. 19. (3) He commends Him on 
account of His innate holiness: “A righteous Branch,” i.e., 
in conception, because He is alone without sin. ‘Therefore, 
also, that Holy Thing which shall be born of thee shall be 
called the Son of God,” S. Luke i. 35. (4) From His regal 
dignity: * A King shall reign." * For He is Lord of Lords, 
and King of Kings," Rev. xvii. 14. (5) From the bright- 
ness of His wisdom: ‘And shall be wise," Vulg. ‘In 
Whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge,” 
Colos. ii. 3. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that Christ came 
into the world that He might judge and reward us, or,*as it 
is here expressed, to “execute justice and judgment in the 
earth.” (1) Judgment in condemning the unbelieving: * He 
that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not 
believed in the Name of the Only Begotten Son of God," 
S. John iii. 18. (2) In justifying and loving those who 


believe: ‘God so loved the world, that He gave His Only 
Begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not 
perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent not His 
‘Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the 
world through Him might be saved," S. John iii. 16, 17. 
We ought to believe in Him by faith, which guides us, and 
operates in us for our salvation. We ought to fly from sin, 
lest we be condemned: * He that believeth and is baptized, 
shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned,” 
S. Mark xvi. 16. From which condemnation may He de- 
liver us, &c. 



, “Then those men, when they had seen the miracle that Jesus did, said, 

This is of a truth that Prophet that should come into the world."— 
S. John vi. 14. 

THREE things are recorded in these words. Firstly, the 
power of Christ: “When they had seen the miracle that 
Jesus did." For that miracle that He had wrought was an 
act of infinite power. S. Dionysius says, that a miracle is a 
manifest act of the power of God directed to the highest 
aim. Secondly, the great wisdom of Christ: “ This is of a 
truth that Prophet," &c. Prophesying is an act of infinite 
wisdom: ‘The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a 
Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto 
Me; unto Him ye shall hearken," Deut, xviii. 15. Thirdly, 
the great justice of Christ: “That should come into the 
world;" for Christ is to come into the world to judge it in 
justice, ** And He shall judge the world in righteousness, 
He shall minister judgment to the people in righteousness," 
Psalm ix. 8. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that there were four 
signs of Christ. (1) The first was His Incarnation, which 
was a sign of infinite goodness: ** Therefore the Lord Him- 
self shall give you a sign: Behold, a virgin shall conceive, 


and bear a son," &c., Isa. vii. 12. (2) The operation of 
miracles, which was a sign of infinite power: * And many 
other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of His disciples, 
which are not written in this book: but these are written, 
that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of 
God; and that believing, ye might have life through His 
Name," S. John xx. 30, 31. (3) His Passion: “ Then cer- 
tain of the Scribes and of the Pharisees answered, saying, 
Master, we would see a sign from Thee. But He answered 
and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation 
seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to 
it, but the sign of the Prophet Jonas: for as Jonas was three 
days and three nights in the whale's belly, so shall the Son 
of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the 
earth,” St. Matt. xii. 88-42. (4) His coming to judgment: 
“« All ye inhabitants of the world and dwellers on the earth, 
see ye, when He lifteth up an ensign on the mountains, and 
when He bloweth a trumpet, hear ye," Isa. xviii. 3. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the great 
wisdom of Christ is seen in four particulars. (1) In His 
doctrine—4.e., in truth: * Master, we know that Thou art 
true, and teachest the way of God in truth," S. Matt. xxii. 16. 
(2) In its depth: “ The words of a man’s mouth are as deep 
waters”—i.e., words from the mouth of Christ are spiritual. 
doctrine; “and the well-spring of wisdom as a flowing 
brook,” Prov. xviii. 4: for so great is the abundance of 
word of doctrine, of this present life, the fountain of wis- 
dom. Mystically, the “deep waters" refer to the Old Tes- 
tament; and the “flowing brooks” to the New Testament; 
and Christ and His Apostles unlock the mysteries of both 
Testaments. Again, words of wisdom wash and bedew the 
mind, lest it remains defiled with the spot of sin, or fails 
through the lack of moisture; and because certain things 
mystical be hid, and certain are open, they are rightly 
called here ** a deep water," and a * flowing brook.” (8) In 
its unity: ** The words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, 
and they are life,” S. John vi. 63. (4) In its eterrity: 
* Heaven and earth shall pass away; but My words shall 
not pass away,” S. Luke xxi. 33. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that Christ is 
about to come in the world for four purposes. (1) To con- 
demn the wicked: * Behold, the Lord cometh, with ten 


thousands of His saints, to execute judgment upon all, and 
to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their 
ungodly deeds, which they have ungodly committed," S. 
Jude xiv. 15. (2) To reward the good: ** Behold, I come 
quickly; and My reward is with Me, to give to every man 
according as his work shall be,” Rev. xxii. 12. (3) To 
burn up the earth with fire, and to renovate it: * Our God 
shall come, and shall not keep silence; a fire shall devour 
before Him," Ps.1. 8. (4) To reign by Himself for ever. 
Every other kingdom shall cease; the kingdom of Christ 
wil remain for ever: “I saw in the night visions, and, 
behold, one like the Son of Man came with the clouds of 
heaven, and came to the Ancient of Days, and they brought 
Him near before Him. And there was given Him dominion, 
and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and lan- 
guages should serve Him: His dominion is an everlasting 
dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom that 
which shall not be destroyed,” Dan. vii. 13, 14. 

Printed by the Church Press Company, 18, Burleigh-streot, Strand. 








To MEET the wishes of such persons as have found 
the “Sermones Dominicales” of S. Thomas Aquinas 
a help in the preparation of their Sunday sermons, 
certain of the “Sermones Festivi” of the same 
writer are now edited for their use. Should the 
present volume meet with a reception as kind as 
that which was given to the former series of these 
Homilies, the desire of the Editor will be fully 

Plas Caer Groes, Llanrwst, 
Feast of S. Matthew, 1871. 



The Threefold Office of Jesus Christ 

The Crowns and the Crowned 

The Eagle and its Imitators ... 

The New Song gsx 

The Name of Jesus... ws. aun 

The Magi and their Gifts 


The Twofold Temple... T jsi T 
'The Great Invitation ... ; ; 
The Blessedness of the Virgin's Work 

XI.—S. MAnE's Day. 
Heavenly Husbandry ... 

The Heavenly House ... 


A Good Man ... 

The Causes of S. John’s Honour 
























S. Peter’s Deliverance 
XVI.—S. JAMES’ Day. 
The Cup of Passion 
A Similitude of a Saint 
The Saint and the Pharisees 
The Angelic Work and Condition 
The Sheep and the Wolves 
The Election of Jesus Christ 
The Goodness and Majesty of Jesus Christ 
The Following of Jesus Christ 
The Height and Depth ... zs vis 
The Day of Joy 

The Angelic Witnesses to the Ascension . 

The Mission of God the Holy Ghost 


The Trinity in Unity 

















Ehe Hatibity of sur Lord, 

S. John i. 4.—' The life was the light of men.” ` 

N this Gospel the Child Who is born is called the Word 
—“‘ [n the beginning was the Word,” the ** Light” and 

the ** Life" —** ‘The Life was the Light. of men." From 
this is learned the threefold benefit which His Incarnation 
conferred upon man. 

Jesus Christ Incarnate was— 

I. Firstly, the Word, teaching man—‘‘ Jesus went about 
all Galilee teaching” (S. Matt. iv. 23); and He taught us 
three things : 

t. Physics, which inquires into the nature of things ; 
for Jesus Christ taught us the quality of things when He 
taught the deceit of the world, the treachery of the devil, 
and the truth of God. 

2. Logic, which proves what is true, teaching the truth 
of Holy Scripture—** Then opened He their understand- 
ing, that they might understand the Scriptures" (S. Luke 
xxiv. 45). 

3. Ethics, which is probity of manners, when He taught 
holiness of life—‘‘ Blessed are the meek, the merciful, 
the pure in heart" (S. Matt. v. 3-12); ** Ye call Me 
Master [ Teacher] and Lord, and ye say well: for so I 
am" (S. John xiii. 13). 

II. Secondly, the Light, enlightening man. Our Blessed 
Lord enlightens in three ways : 

1. By expelling the night of sin. 



2. By bringing in the day of grace—** The night is far 
spent, the day is at hand" (Rom. xiii. 12). 

3. By diffusing great lights, which are the Saints, 
throughout the world—** Among whom ye shine as lights 
in the world" (Philipp. ii. 15). 

III. Thirdly, the Life, leading on to eternity : 

I. Repairing our life, by His Resurrection—‘‘ I am the 
Resurrection and the Life" (S. John xi. 25). 

2. Endowing this life with grace—** Because I live, ye 
shall live also" (S. John xiv. 19). 

3. Granting a life of glory—“I will give unto them 
eternal life" (S. John x. 28). 


S. Stephen's Bay. 


Acts vii. $5. —'* He, being full of the Holy Ghost, looked up sted- 
fastly into heaven.’ 
HE name “Stephen” signifies ** crowned," and he 
was most worthy to bear this name who was the 
first to receive the crown of martyrdom. S. Stephen is 
the first or protomartyr of the Christian Church. 

S. Stephen and all God’s saints are crowned with a 
fourfold crown—of silver, of stars, of gold, and of pre- 
cious stones; they are also crowned for certain special 

I. On the first head is to be noted the four crowns of 
God's saints. 

Firstly, the crown of silver. 

**'Take silver and make crowns” (Zech. vi. I1). This 
silver crown signifies purity of soul, which will marvellously 
adorn the body. 

Secondly, the crown of stars. 

** Upon her head a crown of twelve stars” (Rev. xii. 1). 
This crown signifies a perfect knowledge of all things. It 
is said of wisdom **thou shalt put her upon thee as a 
crown of joy" (Ecclus. vi. 31). 

Thirdly, the crown of gold. 

** Take gold and make crowns" (Zech. vi. 11). **'Thou 
settest a crown of pure gold upon his head" (Ps. xxi. 3). 
This crown signifies the delight that flows from indwelling 
divinity. **In that day shall the Lord of Hosts be for a 
crown of glory ... unto the residue of His people" (Isa. 
xxviii. 5). 

Fourthly, the crown of gems or precious stones. 

* A diadem of beauty" (Isa. xxviii. 5). This crown 
signifies immortality. ‘‘ Ye shall receive a crown of glory 
that fadeth not away" (1 S. Peter v. 4). 



II. On the second head it is to be noted that both the 
righteous and the wicked are crowned. 

The righteous are crowned for eight reasons. 

Firstly, by the compassion of God. ‘‘ Who crowneth 
thee with lovingkindness and tender mercies” (Ps. ciii. 4). 

Secondly, by the preservation of purity. ‘*O how 
beautiful is the chaste generation with glory ... it triumph- 
eth crowned for ever " (Wisd. iv. 1, 2). 

Thirdly, by mortification of the flesh. **'To give unto 
them beauty [a crown, Vulg.] for ashes" (Isa. lxi. 3). 

Fourthly, by the labour of righteousness. ** Henceforth 
there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness" (2 S. Tim. 
iv. 8). 

Fifthly, by the victory over temptation. ‘‘ Blessed is 
the man that endureth temptation, for when he is tried he 
shall receive the crown of life" (S. Jas. i. 12). 

Sixthly, by the conversion of others. ** For what is 
our crown of rejoicing? Ye are our joy and glory” 
(1 Thess. ii. 19, 29). 

Seventhly, by a rule well ordered. ** Be thou diligent 
to know the state of thy flocks ... Doth the crown endure 
to every generation ?" (Prov. xxvii. 23, 24). 

Fighthly, by patient suffering. ‘‘ Be thou faithful unto 
death, and I will give thee a crown of life" (Rev. ii. 10). 

The wicked are also crowned, but with other crowns. 

Firstly, with a crown of leaves. "These signify fleshly 
and unprofitable pleasures. —** Let us crown ourselves with 
roses before they be withered” (Wisd. ii. 8) ; ** Woe to 
the crown of pride” (Isa. xxviii. 1). 

Secondly, with a crown of brass, which signifies the 
riches of this world, which are no true riches. Hence the 
locusts had on their heads ‘‘ as it were crowns like gold” 
(Rev. ix. 7), which seemed to be gold, but were not. 

Thirdly, with a crown of thorns, which signifies eternal 
punishments. ‘He will crown thee with a crown of 
tribulation” (Isa. xxii. 18, Vulg.) 

Such crowns as these are to be carefully shunned, whilst 
the crowns of the saints are to be earnestly sought for. 


S. Jobn the Changelist’s Day. 


Job xxxix. 27.—'* Doth not the eagle mount up at Thy command, 
and make her nest on high ?” 

qu words contain two points—(1) a similitude, 
(2) its application. | 

I. On the frst head it is to be noted that S. John the 
Evangelist is symbolized by an eagle for three reasons. 

Firstly, from the acuteness of his vision. 

The sharptsightedness of an eagle is proverbial, because 
it can look on the brightest light, such as the disk of the sun, 
and see also when it is flying aloft very remote objects, as 
a hare on the ground. So S. John saw the entire disk of 
the sun, i.e., Jesus Christ in the Father, ** In the beginning 
was the Word" (S. John i. 1). He also saw things very 
far off which were to happen at the end of the world, as 
recorded in the Revelation. 

Secondly, from the sublimity of his vision. 

The eagle mounts up, it flies aloft: so S. John soared 
on high in contemplation and in writing. 

In contemplation. **I was in the spirit on the Lord's 
Day, and heard behind me a great voice as of a trumpet" 
(Rev. i. 10). 

In writing. ‘ The face of an eagle” (Ezek. x. 14) was 
above the other three faces, just as S. John's exceeded in 
sublimity the other three evangelists. Had he spoken 
more sublimely the whole world would not have been able 
to understand him. 

Thirdly, from the appropriateness of his actions. 

(1) She ** maketh her nest on high." S. John called 
his disciples together unto God. ‘‘ He that dwelleth in 
love dwelleth in God, and God in him” (1 S. John 
iv. 16). 


(2) She **abideth on the rock," as S. John rested on 
Christ. **'That rock was Christ" (1 Cor. x. 4). 

Of this eagle it is said, ** A great eagle with great 
wings" (Ezek. xvii. 3). 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that morally if 
we desire to fly aloft, we ought for seven reasons to try 
and be like this eagle. 

Firstly, that we may be changed from an old into a 
new state. ‘Thy youth is renewed like the eagle’s” 
(Ps. ciii. 5). 

Secondly, that we may fly, having our conversation on 
high. <‘ Our conversation is in heaven" (Philipp. iii. 2c). 

Thirdly, that we may be plumed with a variety of graces. 
** A great eagle, full of feathers, which had divers colours” 
(Ezek. xvii. 3). 

Fourthly, that we may hasten to ascend to heaven. 
** They were swifter than eagles” (1 Sam. i. 23). ‘‘ Let 
us labour [hasten, Vulg.] therefore to enter into this rest” 
(Heb. iv. 11). 

Fifthly, that we may by a right intention conceal our 
good deeds. ‘‘ There be three things which are too won- 
derful for me ... the way of an eagle in the air” (Prov. 
xxx. I9); ‘¢ Take heed that ye do not your alms before 
men, to be seen of them" (S. Matt. vi. 1). 

Sixthly, that we place Christ, Who is our rock, in the 
nest of the heart. ** That Christ may dwell in your hearts 
by faith " (Eph. iii. 17). 

Seventbly, that we persevere in good works unto the 
end. **'lhey shall mount up with wings as eagles; they 
shall run and not be weary; they shall walk and not faint" 
(Isa. xl. 31). 


The Innocents’ Dap. 

Rev. xiv. 3.—‘‘ They sung as it were a new song before the throne.” 

HREE points are to be noted in these words—Firstly, 

the singers; they were the best singers who sang, 

for they were holy. Secondly, the song; they sang the 

best song, for it was “new.” Thirdly, the place; they 

sang the best song in the best place—** before the throne 
of God." 

I. On the frst head it is to be noted, that singers re- 
quire three things— 

Firstly, the help of a good voice. To obtain this (1) 
the throat must be cleared—sin must be expelled, ** Praise 
is not seemly in the mouth of asinner” (Ecclus. xv. 9); (2) 
the chest expanded—our enemies must be loved, **O ye 
Corinthians, our heart is enlarged” (2 Cor. vi. I1), ‘‘ Sing 
ye to the Lord" (Exod. xv. 21); (3) the mouth to be 
opened—the direction of the intention to God, ** I opened 
my mouth" (Ps. cxix. 131), **O Lord, open Thou my — 
lips" (Ps. li. 15). 

Secondly, singers require teaching the art that they may 
know—(1) How to elevate the voice. The voice is elevated 
by contemplation ** with psalteries on Alamoth” (1 Chron. 
xv. 20), ** with harps on the Sheminith to excel" (v. 21). 
(2) How to lower the voice—that is by humility, ** O ye 
holy and humble men of heart, bless ye the Lord. Praise 
Him" (Dan. iii. 87). (3) How to modulate and har- 
monize the voice—that is the preservation of concord and 
unity, ** Endeavouring to keep the unity of the spirit in the 
bond of peace" (Eph. iv. 3); or the harmony of mind with 
soul, **I will sing with the spirit and I will sing with the 
understanding also" (1 Cor. xiv. 15). 

Thirdly, singers require the exercise of use to sing (I) 
frequently, (2) diligently — of these two “make sweet 


melody, sing many songs, that thou mayest be remembered” 
(Isa. xxiii. 16); (3) strongly, ** make a loud noise,” **sing 
unto the Lord with the harp, with trumpets and sound of 
cornet” (Ps. xcviii. 4, 5, 6). 

Such ought to be the singers, but what is the burden of 
their song? 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that they sing a 
* new song.” It is called “new” as being sung under 
four conditions—(1) by the ** new man," ** Be renewed in 
the spirit of your mind ... put on the new man" (Eph. iv. 
23, 24); (2) a spiritual song, **speaking to yourselves in 
spiritual songs" (Eph. v. 19); (3) an eternal song, ** Be- 
hold I make all things new” (Rev. xxi. 5), ** Sing unto the 
Lord a new song" (Ps. xcvi. 1); (4) new, if sung in a 
new way, joyfully, ** Make a joyful noise unto the Lord" 
(Ps. xcviii. 4). 

Where ought this ** new song" to be sung? 

IIT. On the third head itis to be noted, that this new song 
is sung ** before the throne" for three reasons—(1) That our 
Great High Priest may the more readily hear it, and that our 
Prince may provide us with all necessaries and with great 
gifts, ** Let me hear thy voice, for sweet is thy voice" (Cant. 
li. 14); and the angels readily hear it, ** The companions 
hearken to thy voice, cause me to hear it” (Cant. viii. 13). 
(2) That our most bountiful Prince may confer great digni- 
ties, “ Him will I make a pillar in the temple of my God" 
(Rev. iii. 12). (3) That He may grant large bounties, 
** And I appoint unto you a Kingdom, as My Father has 
appointed unto Me" (S. Luke xxii. 29). 



The Circumcision of Christ. 
S. Luke ii. 21.—** His Name was called JEsus.” 

PETER said long afterwards, ** There is none other 

e name under heaven, given among men, whereby we 

must be saved” (Acts iv. 12). Hence when the preacher 

wishes to lead men to salvation, he should frequently preach 
in this Name. 

I. On the first head is to be noted the value of this 
Name. This Name must be retained in the heart, ever be in 
the mouth, preserved in the ear, carried in the hand, written 
upon the forehead. In the heart because it brings joy; in 
the mouth rejoicing, in the ear melody, in the hand strength, 
in the forehead honour. 

Of the first three S. Bernard —** Jesus is joy in the 
heart, rejoicing in the mouth, melody in the ear." 

Of the fourth—* I will lift up my hands in Thy Name" 
(Ps. lxii. 4). 

Of the fifth—‘* Having His Name and the Name of His 
Father written on their foreheads” (Rev. xiv. I, Vulg.) 

II. On the second head is to be noted the uses of this 

Firstly, to walk in it. ** We will walk in the Name of 
the Lord our God, for ever and ever" (Micah iv. 5). 

Secondly, to pray in. ‘* Whatsoever ye shall ask in My 
Name, that will I do" (S. John xiv. 13). 

Thirdly, to hope and trust in. ** Blessed is the man 
whose trust is in the Name of the Lord" (Ps. xxxix. 4, 

Fourthly, to speak in. ** Whatsoever ye do in word, do 
. all in the Name of the Lord Jesus Christ" (Coloss. iii. 17). 

Fifthly, to workin. ** Whatsoever ye do in deed, do all,” 
&c. (Coloss. iii. 17). 


III. On the z5;rd head, three qualities of this Name are 
to be noted. 

Firstly, it is an admirable Name, since by it 

(1) All things were created. ‘‘ His Name is called the 
Word of God " (Rev. xix. 13), and all things were made 
by the Word of God. For **He spake the word and 
they were made, he commanded and they were created " 
(Ps. cxviii. 5, P. B.) 

(2) Evil spirits were cast out. **In My Name shall they 
cast out devils" (S. Mark xvi. 17). 

(3) All diseases arecured. **In My Name they shall lay 
hands on the sick and they shall recover" (id.) 

Secondly, it is a loveable Name; for 

(1) It justifies sinners. **'Thy Name is as ointment 
poured forth” (Cant. i. 3). The ointment signifies God’s 
mercy and the pouring forth its abundance. 

(2) It gladdens the just. ‘‘ Bless His Name, for the 
Lord is good” (Ps. c. 4, 5). 

(3) It helps the tempted. ‘‘ Our help is in the Name 
of the Lord, Who made heaven and earth” (Ps. cxxiv. 8). 

(4) It increases grace to the righteous. ‘‘ The Name of 
the Lord is a strong tower, the righteous runneth into it, 
and is safe” (Prov. xviii. ss 

(5) It saves all who call upon it. <‘ Whosoever shall 
call upon the Name of the Lord shall be delivered" (Joel 
ii. 32); ** Let them also that love Thy Name be joyful in 
Thee” (Ps. v. 11). 

Thirdly, it is a Name worthy of all praise; for 

(1) It is glorious. ‘This glorious Name" (Deut. 
xxviii. 58); ** We thank and praise Thy glorious Name" 
(1 Chron. xxix. 13). 

(2) Itisholy. ** And holy is His Name" (S. Lukei. 49). 

(3) It is great. “ All Thy works shall praise Thee, 
O Lord” (Ps. cxlv. To). 

(4) It is new.  ** Thou shalt be called by a new Name" 
(Isa. lxii. 2). 

(5) Itis eternal. **O Lord... Thy Name is from ever- 
lasting" (Isa. Ixiii. 16). 


IV. On the fourth head is to be noted some effects of 
this Name. 

(1) It enlightens the understanding. ‘ Behold the Man 
Whose Name is the Branch [or East] " (Zech. vi. 12); 
** Unto you that fear My Name shall the Sun of Righteous- 
ness arise with healing in His wings” (Mal. iv. 2). 

(2) It comforts the affections. ** I will strengthen [com- 
fort, Vulg.] them in the Lord" (Zech. x. 12). 

(3) It delights the soul. ‘‘Praise His Holy Name" 
(Ps. ciii. I). 

V. On the fifth head is to be noted three relations of 
this Name. 

(1) Those beneath the earth must dread it, for by it 
they were despoiled. 

(2) Those on the earth must adore it, because they were 
redeemed by it. 

(3) Those above the earth, in heaven, must praise it, 
for by it they are restored. 

So the Apostle writes, ** At the Name of Jesus every 
knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, 
and things under the earth" (Philipp. ii. 10). 


The Epiphany. 


S. Matt. ii. 11.—** They presented unto Him gifts; gold, and frank- 
incense, and myrrh." 

[^ these words are to be noted—firstly, the Magi them- 
selves; and, secondly, the offerings which they made 
to our Blessed Lord. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that the kings who 
offered these gifts are called Magi, or wise men; and it 
certainly appears from the text from this day's Gospel that 
they were manifoldly wise. Profound logic is discoverable 
in their question, ** Where is He that is born King of the 
Jews?" Astronomy, in their knowledge of the stars, ** We 
have seen His star in the East."  Arithmetic, in their 
choosing the number of primary graces, ** They presented 
unto Him gifts ;" as arithmeticians they knew the value of 
the number three, which indicates the Trinity. Music, 
in their adoration, for music is praise, and God is praised in 
adoration, ‘‘ They worshipped Him.” Ethics, in their per- 
ception of the fact that to know how to humble oneself 
implies indeed a moral knowledge, ‘and fell down." 
They knew metaphysics also through their knowledge of a 
first cause: concerning which they knew three things, 
which they confessed by the gifts which they offered. 

II. On the second head is to be noted the offerings which 
they made. The Magi knew that this Child was, firstly, the 
first cause—the Creator of all things; secondly, the Governor 
of all things; thirdly, the Restorer of all things. By their 
offering of gold, which is a symbol of power, they con- ` 
fessed that He was the Creator—an emblem of kingly might. 

(1) The offering of gold— 

The creative power of our Blessed Lord was shown in . 
creation in a threefold manner. 


Firstly, in His manner of creating. ‘‘ He spake, and it 
was done" (Ps. xxxiii. 9). 

Secondly, on account of what was created, for ** He 
hath done great things." **'The works of the Lord are 
great, sought out of them that have pleasure therein" 
(Ps. cxi. 2). 

Thirdly, because He made all things out of nothing. 
«í [n the beginning God created the heaven and the earth, 
and the earth was without form and void" (Gen. i. I, 2). 

(2) The offering of myrrh— 

The Magi, by their offering of myrrh, acknowledged 
the Lord to be the preserver and governor of all things; 
for myrrh is a great preservative. Our Lord rules three- 

Firstly, universally, by preserving all things. ** Thou 
sparest all; for they are Thine, O Lord, Thou lover of 
souls" ( Wisd. xi. 26). 

Secondly, specially, all animals by rearing them. ** Who 
givest food to all flesh" (Ps. cxxxvi. 25). 

Thirdly, particularly, individuals by multiplying. **In the 
time that their corn and their wine increased" (Ps. iv. 7). 

(3) The offering of frankincense. 

The Magi confessed a Restorer by their offering of 
frankincense. Frankincense was offered to God, but 
Christ was offered on the Cross for the expiation of the 
whole world. **Let my prayer be set before Thee as 
incense” (Ps. cxli. 2). The smoke of this incense, or 
frankincense, does three things. 

Firstly, it puts the devil to flight. **If a devil or an 
evil spirit trouble any, we must make a smoke thereof 
before the man or the woman, and the party shall be no 
more vexed” (Tobit vi. 7). 

Secondly, it cleanses sinners. Who hath “loved us 
and washed us from our sins in His own Blood” 
(Rev. 1. 4). 

Thirdly, it reconciled the world to God.  ** Hath given 
Himself for us an offering" (Eph. v. 2). 


The Conkersion of S. Paul, 

Acts ix. 15.—“ He is a chosen vessel unto Me, to bear My Name 
before the Gentiles.” 
HESE words which were spoken of S. Paul express, 
firstly, that he is ** a chosen vessel ;” and, secondly, 
the purpose of his election, ** to bear My Name,” &c. 

I. On the frst head it is to be noted, that S. Paul was a 
** chosen vessel," and as such was precious, specious, be- 
loved, and elect. 

Firstly, the vessel was precious as being made of silver, 
of gold, set with jewels, and also a heavenly vessel. 

(1) A vessel of silver, by preserving the purity of cleanli- 
ness. **'l'akeaway the dross from the silver" (Prov. xxv. 4). 

(2) A vessel of gold, as containing love. ** Who shall 
separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation ?" 
(Rom. viii. 35). 

(3) A vessel set with gems, remaining intact during 
persecutions. ** Nor death, nor life, not heighth, nor 
depth, shall be able to separate us from the love of God” 
(Rom. viii. 38-39); ‘‘ There is gold and a multitude of 
rubies, but the lips of knowledge are a precious jewel" 

(Prov. xx. 15). 

^. (4) A heavenly vessel, since it enlighteneth the whole 
world. **'The sun when it appeareth, declaring at his 
rising a marvellous instrument” (Ecclus. xlii. 2). The 
Apostle as a heavenly vessel enlightened the world, in 
shining by his miracles, by preaching through his words, 
by shewing to men by his example the better way. “I 
will not dare to speak of any of those things which Christ 
hath not wrought by me... through mighty signs and 
Mid by the power of the Spirit of God " (Rom. xv. 
18-19). | 

Os these accounts S. Paul was a precious vessel. 

Secondly, the vessel was beautiful, for 

(1) It was esteemed for its many buffetings. ‘In labours 
more abundant, in stripes above measure" (2 Cor. xi. 23). 


(2) It was sanctified for divine work. ‘‘ A vessel unto 
honour, sanctified and meet for the Master's use” (2 S. 
Tim. ii. 21); ** He made again another vessel as seemed 
good to the potter" (Jer. xviii. 4). 

(3) It was ornamented with every precious stone. **A 
vessel of beaten gold, set with all manner of precious 
stones” (Ecclus. l. 9); *'* Every precious stone was thy 
covering " (Ezek. xxviii. I2). 

For these reasons the vessel was beautiful. 

Thirdly, the vessel was beloved. 

(1) God the Father shewed His love to the Apostle by 
comforting him in his dangers and troubles. <‘ Blessed 
be God ...... Who comforteth us in all our tribulation” 
(2 Cor. i. 3-4). 

(2) The holy Angels shewed their love when he held 
converse with them. ‘I knew a man in Christ ... caught 
up to the third heaven" (2 Cor. xii. 2); ** Our conversa- 
tion is in heaven" (Philipp. iii. 20.) 

(3) The Saints loved him. S. Peter writes of him— 
** Our beloved Paul, who, according to the wisdom given 
unto him, hath written unto you " (2 S. Pet. iii. 15). 

(4) Sinners loved him, since he sought them out. 
** From Jerusalem and round about unto Illyricum I have 
fully preached the Gospel of Christ" (Rom. xv. 19). 

II. On the second head is to be noted the twofold reason 
of S. Paul's election. 

Firstly, for prophecying when he is represented by 
that cup or vessel which was put into the sack of Benjamin. 
“Is this not it in which my Lord drinketh, and whereby 
indeed He divineth?” (Gen. xliv. 5). 

'The Lord predicted by that Apostolic vessel. 

(1) The future iniquities of the wicked. **'This know 
also, that in the last days perilous times shall come" 
(2 Tim. iii. 1). 

(2) The resurrection of the dead. ‘It is sown a 
natural body, it is raised a spiritual body" (1 Cor. xv. 44). 

(3) The punishments of the reprobate. **'The Lord 
Jesus shall be revealed, taking vengeance on them that 
obey not the Gospel" (2 Thess. i. 8). 


(4) The joy of the blessed. —** So shall we ever be with 
the Lord" (1 Thess. iv. 17). 

The Apostolic ** vessel" contained also a threefold wine. 

(1) Wine which stings in correcting. ‘‘ Thou hast 
made us to drink the wine of astonishment” (Ps. Ix. 3). 

(2) Wine which gladdens in consoling. ‘‘ Wine that 
maketh glad the heart of man" (Ps. civ. 15). 

(3) Wine which stimulates by preaching. ** Babylon 
hath been a golden cup in the Lord's hand: the nations 
have drunken of her wine" (Jer. li. 7). 

Secondly, for bearing the Name of Jesus Christ. But the 
Apostle carried with him gifts from the Lord. 

(1) He carried the Name of Christ by his preaching. 
The Word belonged to the Patriarchs and the Apostles, 
each one of whom carried it to the people also, who were 
converted by it. ** Take of the best fruits in the land in 
your vessels" (Gen. lxiii. 11). 

(2) He carried this Name in his heart by ever thinking 
upon it. **That Christ may dwell in your hearts by 
faith” (Eph. iii. 17). 

(3) He carried this Name in his forehead by glorying 
in it. ‘I have therefore whereof I may glory through 
Jesus Christ" (Rom. xv. 17). 

(4) He carried this Name in his mouth, ever speaking 
of it, **to testify the Gospel of the grace of God" (Acts 
XX. 24). 

(5) He carried it in his hand by doing all things in it. 
** Whatsoever ye do in word or deed, do all in the Name 
of the Lord Jesus" (Coloss. iii. 17). 

(6) He carried this Name in his conversation by imita- 
ting fesus Christ. ** Be ye followers of me, even as I also 
am of Christ" (1 Cor. xi. 1). 

(7) He carried His Name by representing the Death of 
Christ in his whole body. **Ever bearing about in the 
body the dying of the Lord Jesus" (2 Cor. iv. 9). 

(8) He carried His Name by his pen ever writin z about 
Jesus Christ. ** Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ” (Ro a. i. 1), 
writing about Jesus Christ in all his Epistles. 


The Purification of S. Mary the Virgin, 

Mal. iii. x —“‘ The Lord Whom ye seek shall suddenly come to 
His Temple.” 
HESE words can be explained—firstly, of the advent 
of the Lord to the material temple ; secondly, alle- 
gorically of His advent in the womb of the Virgin. + 

I. On the frst head four particulars of **the Presenta- 
tion of Christ in the Temple" are mentioned in the words 
of the Epistle. 

Firstly, the quickness of His coming—‘ shall suddenly 
come." Immediately the forty days from His Nativity were: 
fulfilled our Lord came into the Temple. 

Secondly, the holiness of the place to which He came. 
It was to ** His Temple." 

Thirdly, the dignity of the coming one. He was both 
** the Lord" and the Angel, or **the Messenger of the 
Covenant." < The Lord” as being God; **the Mes- 
senger" or Angel as being Man. ** One Mediator be- 
tween God and man, the Man Christ Jesus" (1 S. Tim. 
li. 5). 

urn, the eagerness of Simeon and Anna and of the 
others who waited for the Lord. ** Whom ye seek"— 
whom ye wish or desire: you wish in relation to an effect ; 
you seek in expressing an affection. — **Seek ye the Lord 
while He may be found " (Isa. lv. 6). 

Fifthly, the benefit of His advent as expressed by the 
words ‘of the Covenant," for Jesus Christ procured for 
us by His advent the covenant of an eternal inheritance. 
** For this cause He is the Mediator of the New Testa- 
ment " (Heb. ix. 15). 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that these words 
express allegorically the incarnation of Christ in the womb 
of the Virgin, who in a wonderful way, before all the 
other saints, is the Temple of God. 



Firstly, because great according to length, by the breadth 
of charity. As the Blessed Virgin had more of faith, 
hope, and charity than any other creature, so she had more 
of greatness.  **'The house which King Solomon built 
for the Lord, the length thereof was three-score cubits " 
(1 Kings vi. 2). 

Secondly, because desirably beautiful.  ** The whole 
house he overlaid with gold" (1 Kings vi. 22). Because 
there was nothing in the Virgin which was not filled with 
holiness. ‘* Behold, thou art fair, My Love; behold, thou 
art fair" (Cant. iv. I). 

Thirdly, because adorned with various devices, as being 
decorated with all the graces of saints and angels. ** He 
carved all the walls of the house round about with carved 
figures" (1 Kings vi. 29). 

Fourtbly, because ornamented with wonderful and great 
columns. ‘* Wisdom hath builded her house, she hath 
hewn out her seven pillars" (Prov. ix. 1), which signify 
the seven graces of the Virgin. 

Fifibly, as consecrated by the work of the whole Trinity. 
**'The holy place of the tabernacles of the Most High” 
(Ps. xlvi. 4); ** The Holy Ghost shall come upon Thee” 
(S. Luke i. 35). 

Sixtbly, as privileged with a great dignity, that all the 
guilty and malefactors who run to it with their whole 
heart may be saved. ‘‘He may hush thy praises, O Virgin, 
who has found thee to be absent when called upon in his 
necessities, and all the prayers which are offered in it to be 
granted" (S. Bernard). ‘‘ Hear Thou their prayer and 
their supplication in heaven, Thy dwelling place" (1 Kings 
viii. 49). 
da. because the Son of God made there a building 
for Himself. <‘ So also Christ glorified not Himself to be 
made an High Priest, but He that said unto Him," &c. 
In the Virgin He was both King and Priest. 

Let us approach therefore with confidence to the temple 
of grace, that we may find mercy in an acceptable time. 


S. Platthins’s Bay. 


S. Matt. xi. 28.—‘‘ Come unto Me, all ye that labour and are heavy 
laden, and I will give you rest.” 
Pe points are to be noted in these words. 

Firstly, the great benignity of God —‘‘ Come ;" 
which truly is great, since the Most High God has called 
His vilest servant, and yet is constrained to lament, ** I called 
My servant and he gave Me no answer: I entreated him 
with My mouth” (Job xix. 16). 

Secondly, the goodness of God—** unto Me;" it is realized 
in the diffusion of itself, when it outpours itself, it gives 
itself. * I am my exceeding P reward" (Gen. xv. 1). 

Thirdly, the great bounty of God—‘‘all ;” for as God is 
infinite goodness, so He desires to communicate Himself by 
infinite gifts to all. ** Who will have all men to be saved, 
and to come to the knowledge of the truth" (1 S. 'T'im. ii. 4). 

Fourthly, our great necessity—** ye that labour and are 
heavy laden." We labour, being burdened under a mani- 
fold weight in this present life; there is— 

(1) The weight of sin—** Mine iniquities are gone over 
mine head: as an heavy burden, they are too heavy for 
me" (Ps. xxxviii. 4). 

(2) The malignity of evil spirits—** The Egyptians evil 
entreated us" (Deut. xxvi. 6). They are the evil spirits 
who load us with burdens. 

(3) Corruptibility — ** The corruptible body presseth 
down the soul, and the earthly tabernacle weigheth down 
the mind that museth upon many things" (Wisd. ix. 15). 

(4) The desire of earthly goods—** Their substance was 
so great that they could not dwell together" (Gen. xiii. 6). . 

(5) The cruelty of tyrants and earthly princes—** They 
shall sorrow a little for the burden of the King of princes" 
(Hos. viii. 10). 

c 2 


(6) ‘The weight of the customs of beastial men—"** Their 
idols were upon the beasts and the cattle: your carriages 
are a burden to the weary beast" (Isa. xlvi. 1). 

(7) The vanity of the world ; Nineveh represents the 
world. **'The burden of Nineveh" (Nah. i. I) is the 
weight of the vanity of it. 

(8) The multiplicity of pains and punishments—* The 
burden which Habakkuk the prophet did see" (Hab. i. 1), 
who goes on to speak of spoiling, violence, ‘strife, and con- 

(9) The needs of our neighbours—‘‘ Bear ye one an- 
other's burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ" (Gal. vi. 2). 

(10) The necessity of death—** This is the sentence of 
the Lord over all flesh" (Ecclus. xli. 3). 

Fifthly, the great benefit of coming to Jesus Christ—** I 
will give you rest.” Pressed down under so many labours 
we need to come to Christ, Who refreshes us with a three- 
fold food. 

(1) With the ** Bread of Life "—'** The bread that I 
will give is My flesh, which I will give for the life of the 
world ” (S. John vi. 51). This is the perception of the 
Body of Christ. 

(2) With the hidden manna—** To him will I give to 
eat of the hidden manna" (Rev. ii. 17). This is the sweet- 
ness of spiritual devotion. 

(3) With the tree of life—‘*To him will I give to eat 
of the tree of life" (Rev. ii. 7). This is to partake of the 
fruits of the Spirit, which are ** love, joy, peace, longsuffer- 
ing, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance” 
(Gal. v. 22, 23). All these things are for the present time 
and life. What shall there be for the future? ‘In this 
[the heavenly] mountain shall the Lord of Hosts make 
unto all people a feast of fat things; a feast of wines on 
the lees, of fat things full of marrow, of wines on the lees 
well refined” (Isa xxv. 6). ‘To which heavenly banquet 
may Jesus Christ bring us. 


The Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 

S. Luke i. 48.—'* Blessed art thou among women.” 

IRS FLY, thou art blessed by God the Father, since 

thou communicatest with Him in the same Son. 

“That holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be 
called the Son of God." 

Secondly, thou art blessed by God the Son, since thou 
hast prepared for Him a worthy habitation. ‘ That holy 
thing which shall be born of Thee.” 

Thirdly, thou art blessed by God the Holy Ghost, for 
** The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power 
of the highest shall overshadow thee." 

Fourtbly, thou art blessed by the Holy Angels, since 

(1) Thou beginnest this life upon earth. S. Jerome 
says that ** She began the life of angels, because she insti- 
tuted the life of virgins. Virginity is the sister of angels. 
To live in the flesh, yet not after the flesh, is to live an 
heavenly and not an earthly life.” 

(2) Thou repairest their ruin. The Virgin did this, for 
she begot Him Who did it. ‘* That He might gather 
together in one all things in Christ, both which are in 
heaven, and which are on earth” (Eph. i. 10). 

(3) Thou humblest thyself to hold converse with them. 
** Behold the handmaid of the Lord ; be it unto me accord- 
ing to Thy Word" (S. Luke i. 38). 

Fifibly, thou art blessed by sinners, since— 

(1) Thou liberatest them from their distresses. S. Ber- 
nard writes, ** Let him be silent at thy praises, O Blessed 
Virgin, who has found thee false when he called upon 
thee in his necessities." 

(2) Thou helpest them in their dangers. S. Bernard 
says, **In dangers, in doubts, think upon Mary, invoke 

(3) Thou askest pardon for sins. Remember 'Theo- 


philus liberated; the case of the brother Martin the Cister- 
cian, of the sister of the King of France." 

Sixthly, thou art blessed by the just. 

(1) Thou hearest their prayers. S. Bernard writes, 
** O man, thou hast a secure access to God.” 

(2) Thou liberatest in temptations. <‘ A sceptre shall 
come out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab" 
(Numb. xxiv. 17). 

(3) Thou increasest grace in the virtues. The hymn. 
reads, ** O Mother, pious and humble, mindful of our 
fragile nature amidst the billows of this life, guide us by 
thy prayers." 

Seventhly, thou art blessed by women. 

(1) Thou liberatest them from their enemies. "Women 
through sin are held captive by the devil, they are despised 
by God, but the Blessed Virgin liberated them from their 
enemies, for Christ her Son destroyed the devil, ** that 
through death He might destroy him that had the power 
of death, that is, the devil" (Heb. ii. 14). 

(2) Thou excusest to the man. For if the man should 
say to the woman, **I am condemned on your account,” 
she can answer, ** You are saved through me." 

(3) Thou honourest them in respect to God; for the 
Son of God is also the Son of a woman. ‘‘ God sent forth 
His Son made of a woman, made under the law, to re- 
deem them that were under the law" (Gal. iv. 4-5). 

Eighthly, thou art blessed of all creatures; for 

(1) Thou liberatest them from taint; for the Son Whom 
thou hast begotten created, cleansed, and renewed all 
creatures, — ** All things were made by Him" (S. John i. 3). 

(2) Thou sucklest the Creator of them—that is, thou 
cleansest the sins. ** Washed us from our sins in His own 
Blood" (Rev. i. 5). 

(3) Thou renewest them unto their first estate. ** Thou 
sendest forth 'Thy Spirit [through which the Virgin con- 
ceived], they are created, and Thou renewest the face of 
the earth" (Ps. civ. 30); ** And He that sat upon the 
throne said, Behold! I make all things new" (Rev. xxi. 5). 



S, Mark's Bay, 

S. John xv. 1.—'* My Father is the husbandman.” 

ESUS called His Father an ** husbandman " because He 
cultivates a fourfold field. Firstly, the world: ** The 
field is the world” (S. John xiii. 38). Secondly, Christ 
Himself: ** With Me is the beauty of the field” (Ps. xlix. 
I1, Vulg.) Thirdly, the just man: **Diligently till thy field" 
(Prov. xxiv. 27, Vulg.), that is, thyself. Fourthly, the 
heavenly paradise: **She considereth a field and buyeth 
it” (Prov. xxxi. 16). <‘ Let us,” says S. Augustine, ** burn, 
I beseech you, for the possession of that field of which the 
beauty is so great." 

I. On the first head it is to be neted, that the Heavenly 
Husbandman cultivates the field of the world in four 

Firstly, by sowing it with different seeds, manifold crea- 
tures. ** Which sowed good seed in his field" (S. Matt. 
Xll. 24). 

Secondly, multiplying the same seed and creatures. ** Let 
the earth bring forth herb yielding seed after his kind” 
(Gen. i. 12). 

Thirdly, by preserving that which is sown, lest created 
beings should fail. **In Him was life" (S. John i. 4). 

Fourthly, by rooting up the overgrowing tares. ‘‘ Gather 
ye together first the tares and bind them in bundles to 
burn them " (S. Matt. xiii. 30). 

This fourfold cultivation involves the work of creation, 
propagation, preservation, and retribution. 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that Jesus 
Christ cultivates the second field in four ways. 

Firstly, by sowing it with the seeds of every virtue. 

24 S. MARK'S DAY. 

** See, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field which 
the Lord hath blessed " (Gen. xxvii. 27). 

Secondly, by watering it with the waters of grace. ‘A 
river went out of Eden to water the garden" (Gen. ii. 10) ; 
and Christ, like it, is divided ‘‘into four heads," since 
«c Of His fulness have all we received, and grace for grace" 
(S. John i. 16), ** We beheld His glory" (id. v. 14). 

Thirdly, by suffering Himself to be dug up. ‘ They 
pierced my hands and my feet " (Ps. xxii. 17). 

Fourtbly, by submitting to be made as mire for the spit- 
tings and reproaches. ‘‘I sink in the deep mire where no 
water is” (Ps. Ixix. 2); ** He is filled full with reproach” 
(Lam. iii. 30). 

III. On the ¢hird head it is to be noted, that the third 
field, that of the just, He likewise cultivates in a fourfold 

Firstly, by rooting out the germs of sins, as he who 
desires to sow a great field frees it from everything that 
will produce weeds. 

Secondly, by breaking it up with the plough of contrition. 
** Doth the plowman plow all day to sow ? Doth he open 
and break the clods of his ground ?" (Isa. xxviii. 24). 

Thirdly, by sowing the seeds of graces. ** Doth he not 
cast abroad the fitches, and scatter the cummin, and cast 
in the principal wheat ?" (id. v. 25). 

Fourthly, by irrigating it by the water of tears. “I will 
water my best garden, and will water abundantly my garden 
bed " (Ecclus. xxiv. 31). 

IV. On the fourth head it is to be noted, that the fourth 
field, the heavenly paradise, is also cultivated in a fourfold 

Firstly, by rooting up all noxious weeds, that is the 
demons. ‘ And the great dragon was cast out, that old 
serpent called the devil” (Rev. xii. 9). 

Secondly, by planting fair trees, the orders of angels, in 
i. '*'The cedars in the garden of God" (Ezek. xxxi. 8.) 

Thirdly, by planting in it the fairest flowers—the lilies 

S. MARK'S DAY. ` 25 

of virgins, the roses of martyrs, the violets of confessors. 
** 'The flowers appear on the earth ;" ** My beloved feedeth 
among the lilies” (Cant. ii. 12, 16). 

Fourthly, by watering it with the rivers of joy. ‘‘ Be- 
hold there ran out waters " (Ezek. xlvii. 2). 

The first river expresses the joy of bodily creatures ; 
the second, the society of angels; the third, the Man 
Christ; the fourth, the glory of divinity ; and this j joy can- 
not flow away, for it is infinite. 


SH, Philig and James's Bay. 


S. John xiv. 2—* In My Father's house are many mansions.” 

HIS house is eternal life: **I was glad when they 
said unto me, We will go into the House of the 
Lord” (Ps. cxxii. 1). 
We can distinguish six mansions in this house, of which 
three belong to the Holy Angels and three to the Saints. 

I. On the frst head it is to be noted, that the three 
mansions which belong to the Holy Angels contain these 
several inhabitants. 

Firstly, in the first mansion dwells the hierarchy, and it 
contains three chambers. (1) In the first chamber, heat ; 
(2) in the second, splendour ; (3) in the third, rest: for 
the Seraphim dwell in the first, the Cherubim in the second, 
and the Thrones in the third chamber. 

Secondly, in the second mansion dwells the middle hier- 
archy, which also contains three chambers. (1) In the 
first chamber is shown reverence to the King; (2) in the 
second is given dominion to kings; (3) in the third are 
soldiers who carry on war. In the first dwell the Prin- 
cipalities, who teach reverence ; in the second, the Domi- 
nations, who distribute dominions; in the third, the Powers, 
which govern the powers of the air. 

Thirdly, in the third mansion is the third hierarchy, which 
contains three chambers, (1) In the first chamber is de- 
clared the majesty of the King; (2) in the second, His 
secrets ; (3) in the third, His will is announced. In the 
first chamber dwell the Virtues, which work miracles; in 
the second are the Archangels, who proclaim the higher 
secrets ; in the third, the Angels, who declare the will 
of God to men. ‘These three are the mansions of the 


II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the three 
oe which belong to the Saints contain several inha- 
itants. ' 

Firstly, in the first mansion dwell those soldiers by whose 
strength the Church is defended, and it contains three 
chambers. (1) In the first dwell those who fight for the 
love of their King, the martyrs for the faith; the first who 
died for the love of Christ, as S. Stephen and many others, 
these belong to the Seraphim. (2) In the second dwell those 
for the defence of the King, they are martyrs for doctrine, 
such are the prophets; these belong to the Cherubim. 
(3) In the third are others who fight with zeal for righte- 
ousness, being martyrs for it, like S. John Baptist and many 
others ; these belong to the Thrones. 

Secondly, in the second mansion dwell those wise, the 
confessors, by the counsels of whom the Church is 
governed; it contains three chambers. (1) In the first 
dwell the religious, who represent the Principalities. (2) In 
the second the prelates, and they belong to the Domina- 
tions. (3) In the third the married, who belong to the 

Thirdly, in the third mansion dwell those virgins, the 
domestics, by whose beauty the Church is adorned; it 
contains three chambers. (1) In the first dwell those 
virgins which are women; these belong to the Virtues. 
(2) In the second the men who are virgins ; these belong 
to the Archangels. (3) In the third dwell the child 
virgins ; they belong to the Angels. 

Let us mark the order of each one and its separate 
chamber in the mansions of heaven. 

There are six things which ought to move us to try and 
gain this house. 

Firstly, its magnitude. <‘ O Israel, great is the house of 
God” (Baruch iti. 24). 

Secondly, its beauty. — ** Lord, I have loved the habitation 
of Thy house, and the place where Thine honour dwelleth” 
(Ps. xxvi. 8). 


Thirdly, its abundance of glory. ** Wealth and riches 
shall be in his house" (Ps. cxii. 3). 

Fourthly, its joy. **I was glad when they said unto 
me, Let us go into the house of the Lord" (Ps. cxxii. 1). 

Fifibly its continuous praise. ‘‘ Blessed are they that 
dwell in Thy house; they will be still praising Thee" 
(Ps. Ixxxiv. 4). 

Sixthly, its eternity. ** We have a building of God, an 
house not made with hands, eternal” (2 Cor. v. 1). 


S. Barnabas’ Day. 

Acts xi. 24.—'* He was a good man, full of the Holy Ghost and of 

WO things are needful for a man — firstly, interior 
perfection; secondly, exterior conversation: the 
former for his own sake, the latter for the sake of others. 
Interior perfection consists in—firstly, a knowledge of 
the truth; and, secondly, the delight in goodness. The 
first of these implies the perfection of the understanding, 
the second the perfection of the affections. Exterior con- 
versation consists of—firstly, gravity of manners; secondly, 
profit in actions. 

All these four qualities are ascribed to S. Barnabas in 
the words of thetext. ‘The perfection of the understand- 
ing by **full of faith;" for faith is the light of the 
understanding, it is the enlightenment of truth by which 
we are enlightened from the source of light to the 
seeing spiritual things. The perfection of the affections, 
‘full of the Holy Ghost;" the spirit of love and of the 
gift which includes all other gifts. S. Barnabas was 
rightly said to be **full of the Holy Ghost" since he was 
full of love—‘* The love of God is shed abroad in our 
hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us" (Rom. 
v. 5). Gravity of manners is represented by the word 
* full," strong and wise, heavy not light—* I will give 
thee thanks in the great congregation” (Ps. xxxv. 18). 
The profit in actions is represented by the epithet ** good.” 
Goodness is diffusive, and so it leads to profit in actions, 
by which goodness man, as it were, pours himself out. 
Goodness is twofold—firstly, essential ; and, secondly, it 
exists by participation. Essential goodness belongs alone 
to God, it is referred to Him only—** None is good s save 
one, that i is, God " (S. Luke xviii. 19). 


The goodness of participation is attributed to the crea- 
ture in six different ways. 

Firstly, true goodness, according to the nature of the 
thing itself. 

Secondly, that which is generically goodness in relation 
to its end. 

Thirdly, goodness in action from circumstantial necessity, 
yet good in itself in relation to its end. 

Fourthly, the goodness of human action. 

Fifthly, goodness of favour or grace, that is, of reward. 

Sixthly, in goodness of glory. 

S. Barnabas had all these forms of goodness, hence he 
was **a good man." Let us seek to be like him. 


S. John Baptist’s Day. 

S. Luke i. 66.—** What manner of child shall this be?" 

HIS doubt can be solved by the answer that— 
Firstly, he was comely. 

(1) On account of the whiteness of virginity. '* The 
child was in the deserts” (S. Luke i. 8o). 

(2) From the redness of martyrdom. ‘ And the King 
sent an excutioner ... and he went and beheaded him in 
the prison” (S. Mark vi. 27). 

(3) On account of his beauty, likeness, and representa- 
tion of Christ. His resemblance to our Blessed Lord was 
so close that he was believed to be Christ. ‘ All men 
mused in their hearts of John, whether he were the Christ 
or not” (S. Luke iii. 15). 

Secondly, he was in favour. 

(1) On account of his holiness, for he was filled with 
the grace of the Holy Ghost. ‘‘ He shall be filled with 
the Holy Ghost, even from his mothers womb" (S. 
Luke i. 15). 

(2) On account of his humility—Firstly, he was clothed 
with the hardest of garments: **His raiment of camel's 
hair and a leathern girdle about his loins" (S. Matt. iii. 4). 
Secondly, he practised the greatest abstinence: ** His meat 
was locusts and wild honey" (;7.) ‘Thirdly, in the matter 
of the Baptism of our Lord: * I have need to be baptized 
of 'Thee, and comest Thou to me?" (S. Matt. iii. 4). 
Fourthly, in his answer to the Pharisees: ** I am the voice 
of one crying in the wilderness" (S. John i. 23). Fifthly, 
in his instruction of the disciples: ** He must increase, but 
I must decrease" (S. John iii. 30). 

(3) On account of his usefulness— Firstly, he was 
useful in baptizing: ‘‘ There went out unto him Jerusalem 


and all Judea ... and were baptized of him in Jordan" 
(S. Matt. iii. 5-6). Secondly, he was useful by his example 
and preaching: ** He was a light burning [by his example] 
and shining" (S. John v. 35) by his words. 

Thirdly, he was glorious in his dignity for nine reasons, 

(1) He was the subject of prophecy. ‘‘I will send My 
messenger, and he shall prepare the way before Me" 
(Mal. iti. 1). 

(2) He was announced by the angel. ‘‘ Elizabeth thy 
wife shall bear thee a son" (S. Luke i. 13). 

(3) He was born miraculously. **'They had no child, 
because that Eilzabeth was barren" (S. Luke i. 7). 

(4) He was sanctified from the womb. ‘He shall be 
filled with the Holy Ghost even from his mother's womb" 
(id. v. 15). 

(5) His birth was accompanied with many miracles. 
** His mouth was opened immediately" (S. Luke i. 64). 

(6) He preceded the Lord. ‘‘ This is he of whom it 
is written," &c. (S. Matt. xi. Io). 

(7) He was the precursor of the King. “ He shall go 
before Him in the spirit and power of Elias" (S. Luke i. 17). 

(8) He baptized our Blessed Lord. ** Then cometh 
Jesus unto John to be baptized of him" (S. Matt. iii. 13). 

(9) He was a witness of the light. ‘ The same came 
for a witness" (S. John i. 7). 

Morally, if anyone desires to attain unto the glory of 
eternity, he must study to be a child—to be pure in three 
things. | 

Firstly, in the heart. **Purify your hearts" (S. James iv. 8). 

Secondly, in the mouth. <‘ The words of the pure are 
pleasant" (Prov. xv. 26). 

Thirdly, in deed. “Lifting up holy hands” (1 S. 
Tim. ii. 8). 

S. PETER'S DAY. | 33 

S, Peter's Bay, 


Acts xii. 7.—** His chains fell off from his hands." 

O this miracle the words of the Psalm apply —‘** Thou 
hast loosed my bonds. I will offer to Thee the 
sacrifice of thanksgiving, and will call upon the Name of 
the Lord” (Ps. cxvi. 16, 17). Three things are to be 
noted in these words. Firstly, the loosening of S. Peter’s 
bonds or chains, ** Thou hast loosed my bonds." Secondly, 
the thanksgiving, ** I will offer to Thee the sacrifice of 
thanksgiving.” Thirdly, the invocation of the Divine Name, 
“I will call upon the Name of the Lord." 

I. On the first bead it is to be noted, that S. Peter was 
bound by three kinds of bonds. 

Firstly, by the bonds of sin, in his denial of his Lord. ** He 
shall be holden with the cords of his sins" (Prov. v. 22); 
**'T'his night before the cock shall crow thou shalt deny 
Me thrice" (S. Matt. xxvi. 34). 

Secondly, by the bonds of punishment in the suffering of 
the body. ** When thou art old, another shall gird thee" 
(S. John xxi. 18). 

Thirdly, with material bonds, the chains at his imprison- 
ment. “Peter was bound with two chains" (Acts xii. 6). 

The first bond of sin was loosened by Jesus Christ when 
He gave His grace to S. Peter, when ‘the Lord turned 
and looked upon Peter" (S. Luke xxii. 61). 

The second bond of bodily weakness the Lord will 
loose by conferring eternal glory. **Yethat have followed 
me in the regeneration, when the Son of Man shall sit upon 
the throne of His glory: ye also shall sit upon twelve 
thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel " (S. Matt. xix. 

‘The third bond of chains the Angel of the Lord loosened, 


at whose touch ‘his chains fell off his hands" (Acts 
xii. 7). 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that he sancti- 
fied to himself a threefold sacrifice. 

Firstly, a sacrifice of contrition. ‘‘ The sacrifices of 
God are a broken spirit: a broken and contrite heart, O 
God, Thou wilt not despise” (Ps. li. 17). 

Secondly, a sacrifice of praise. ‘‘ Offer unto God thanks- 
giving” (Ps. l. 14). 

Thirdly, the sacrifice of his own body. ‘I beseech you 
that ye present your bodies, a living sacrifice” (Rom. xii. 1). 

S. Peter offered the first sacrifice by weeping bitterly 
after his denial of Christ. **He went out and wept 
bitterly” (S. Matt. xxvi. 75). 

He offered the second sacrifice by his thanksgiving after 
his deliverance. ** Now I know of a surety that the Lord 
hath sent His Angel, and hath delivered me” (Acts xii. I1). 

He offered the third sacrifice by immolating his body at 
his passion for God, when he fulfilled his own words. 
** [ will lay down my life for Thy sake" (S. John xiii. 37). 

III. On the żhird head it is to be noted, that S. Peter, in 
a threefold manner, called upon the Name of the Lord 

Firstly, by his preaching. ‘‘ Repent and be baptized 
every one of you in the Name of Jesus Christ" ( Acts ii. 38). 

Secondly, by his praying. ‘‘ Lord, save us, we perish” 
(S. Matt. viii. 25). 

Thirdly, by his praising. ‘‘ There is none other name 
under heaven given among men” (Acts iv. I2). | 

This Name of Jesus is ever to be invoked, since it both 
justifies sinners and saves the elect. 

8. JAMES'S DAY. 35 


S, Sames’s Bay. 

S. Matt. xx. 22.—"'* Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall 
drink of ?” 

HE Passion of Christ is understood by this cup: **O 

My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from 

Me" (S. Matt. xxvi. 39). This cup of the Lord is three- 

fold. Firstly, embittering, since it was mingled with vine- 

gar, myrrh, and gall: ** They gave me gall for my meat” 

(Ps. Ixix. 21). Secondly, it is an inebriating cup : ** My 

cup runneth over" (Ps. xxii. 5), [or inebriateth, Vulg.] 

Thirdly, it is a saving cup: **I will take the cup of salva- 

tion" (Ps. cxvi. 12). They gave our Blessed Lord all 
these three cups to drink. 

I. On the frst head it is to be noted, that the cup of the 
Lord's Passion was bitter for three reasons. 

Firstly, because He suffered for the ungodly. ** The 
Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners” (S. Mark 
XIV. 41). 

Sn, because He suffered for doing good. ‘‘ Many 
good works have I shewed you; for which of those 
works do ye stone Me?" (S. John x. 32). 

Thirdly, because He suffered in having pure members. 
** Who did no sin, neither was guile found in His mouth" 
(1 S. Peter ii. 21). His members were not corrupted and 
mortified by sin, yet He felt the force of sin all around 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the cup of 
the Lord’s Passion is inebriating for three reasons. 

Firstly, because it induces forgetfulness of present things. 
‘<The cup shall pass through thee ; thou shalt be drunken 
and shalt make thyself naked.” 

Secondly, because it renders us insensible to suffering 

D 2 


** Consider the sufferings of thy Lord, and lightly wilt 
thou bear thy sufferings” (S. Bernard). ‘‘ If we remember 
the Passion of our Lord, there is nothing hard that we 
Shall not cheerfully bear" (S. Greg. Mag.) Hence it is 
that saints dwell in caves. 

Thirdly, because it animates our souls to war. ‘To the 
end they might provoke the elephants to fight, they shewed 
them the blood of grapes and mulberries" ( 1 Macc. vi. 34). 

III. On the z/ird head it is to be noted, that the cup of 
the Passion of Christ saves us from a threefold disease. 

Firstly, from the guilt of original sin. ** We were by 
nature the children of wrath" (Eph. ii. 3), because of 
original sin. 

Secondly, from the guilt of actual sin. ** He was bruised 
for our iniquities ... with His stripes we are healed” (Isa. 
lili. 5). 

Thirdly, from the punishment due to sin. ‘‘ Surely He 
hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows” (Isa. 
s Peter includes all these three. ** Who His own self 
bare our sins in His own body on the tree" (1. S. Peter ii. 
24)—''sins" in the plural, implying both original and 
actual sin. ‘‘ By Whose stripes ye were healed "—saved 
from the infliction of punishment. 


S, Bartholomei the Apostle. 


Joel i. 7.—‘* He hath barked my fig-tree, the branches thereof are 
made white.” 

HESE words can be explained of S. Bartholomew 
and his passion. Firstly, he who suffered is ** my 
fig-tree.” Secondly, the passion itself is expressed by 
* He hath barked.” Thirdly, his reward by the words, 
** The branches thereof are made white." 

I. On the frst head it is to be noted, that S. Bartholomew 
can be likened to a fig-tree for three reasons, since it con- 
tains wood, leaves, and fruit. 

Firstly, by the wood of the fig-tree is signified the holi- 
ness of his heart. The wood contains (1) the pith, (2) the 
fibre, and (3) the bark. 

(1) In the pith is whiteness, which in the holy heart is 
the whiteness or candour of faith. ‘‘ The brightness of 
the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of the power of 
God" (Wisd. vii. 26). 

(2) In the woody fibre is fortitude or strength, which 
becomes the strength of hope in a holy soul. **In quiet- 
ness and confidence shall be your strength" (Isa. xxx. 15). 

(3) In the bark is the preservation of both the pith and 
the fibre; in a holy soul it is that preservation by love 
which leads onwards to the desire of heavenly things. 
** Who shall separate us from the love of Christ ?" (Rom. 
viii. 35). 

Secondly, by the leaves of the fig-tree is signified the 
profitableness of speech. ‘They have three qualities. 

(1) Milkiness of juice. ‘This signifies purity of speech, 
since milk is white, and this purity comes from truth. 
**'The words of the pure are pleasant words" (Prov. xv. 


(2) Greenness in colour. "This signifies the honesty 
from which flows the pleasure in speech, for green is a 
pleasing colour. ** Pleasant words are as an honeycomb” 
(Prov. xvi. 24). 

(3) Roughness to the touch. This signifies that sharp- 
ness of speech which is often so useful and necessary. 
Bland words are often harmful and seductive; it is the 
rough speech which profits and corrects. ‘‘ Let no cor- 
rupt communication proceed out of your mouth” (Eph. 
iv. 29). 

Thirdly, by the fruit of the fig-tree is signified holiness 
of action. Fruit has three qualities. 

(1) An internal redness. ‘This signifies that charity in 
which all our actions ought to be performed. ‘ Let all 
your things be done with charity " (Rom. xvi. Lp. 

(2) An external greenness, which is a middle colour, 
not in excess or defect. Green signifies humility, and this 
grace relieving our service of excess or defect. ** Which 
is your reasonable service" (Rom. xii. 1). 

(3) A sweetness of taste, which signifies that joy in 
action which should accompany all our works. ** Not 
grudgingly or of necessity, for God loveth a cheerful 
giver” (2 Cor. ix. 7). 

II. On the second head is to be noted the passion of 
S. Bartholomew, who was ** barked " or flayed for three 

Firstly, that he might be offered to God as a true lamb 
for a burnt offering. ‘‘ He shall flay the burnt offering 
and cut it into his pieces” (Levit. i. 6). 

Secondly, that he might be dried from every humour of 
sin, as the tree is barked to dry the wood. ** Do men 
gather figs of thistles ?" (S. Matt. vii. 16). 

Thirdly, he was flayed that he might be renewed like 
the serpent is when it has cast off its old skin. ** Be ye 
therefore wise as serpents " (S. Matt. x. 16). 

III. On the zhird head is to be noted his reward: **The 
branches thereof are made white." "They are four. 


Firstly, the branches of the body, the bodily senses. 
These are whitened, for whosoever is holy shall receive 

Secondly, the branches of the mind are three—(1) the 
memory, (2) the intelligence, (3) the will. 

(1) The memory is whitened by the comprehension of 
eternity. ; 

(2) The intelligence, by the understanding of all truth. 

(3) The will, by the enjoyment of all that is desirable. 

To be whitened both in body and soul is nothing else 
than to be glorified by the reception of white raiment. 
** These are they which came out of great tribulation, and 
have washed their robes and made them white in the blood 
of the Lamb” (Rev. vii. 14). 


S. Matthew the Apostle 


S. Matt. ix. 9.—'* He saw a man named Matthew sitting at the 
receipt of custom." 
N this Gospel three things are to be noted. Firstly, 
the compassion of our Lord Jesus Christ. Secondly, 
the holiness of S. Matthew. Thirdly, the blindness of 
the Pharisees. 

I. On the first head the compassion of our Lord is to 
be noted in five particulars. 

Firstly, in the sanctification of S. Matthew. He saw that 
God saw him with a fourfold eye by infusing grace. ** There 
is another that is slow and hath need of help, wanting 
ability ; yet the eye of the Lord looked upon him for 
good, and set him up from his low estate" (Ecclus. xi. 12). 
All of which can be well applied to the call of S. Mat- 

Secondly, in calling S. Matthew to the Apostolate. ** He 
saith unto him, Follow Me;” **Ihave called thee" (Isa. 
xli. 9). 

124, in eating familiarly with him and with other 
publicans. ‘* Jesus sat at meat, many publicans and sin- 
ners came and sat down with Him" (S. Matt. ix. Io). 

Fourthly, in His confutation of the sins of the Pharisees. 
** They that be whole need not a physician, but they that 
are sick;" as if He said, Ye do need Me, since ye repute 
yourselves to be whole. 

Fifthly, in the recommendation of His compassion. 
** Go ye and learn what that meaneth, I will have mercy 
and not sacrifice." Our Lord's compassion was so great 
that as He had justified and sanctified a great sinner, so 
also He ate familiarly with him, by doing which He 
silenced the Pharisees, who eschewed sinners, and com- 
mended His own divine pity and compassion. 


II. On the second head, the holiness of S. Matthew is 
to be noted in five particulars. 

Firstly, in his desertion of all things. <‘ He left all, rose 
up and followed Him " (S. Luke v. 28). 

Secondly, in the readiness of his obedience. ** He rose 
up" (S. Luke v. 28), obeying directly the Lord called him. 
** As soon as they hear of me they shall obey me" (Ps. 
xviii. 44). 

Thirdly, in the imitation of Christ. ‘He followed 
Him,” imitating His life thereby. ‘‘ Be ye therefore fol- 
lowers of God" (Eph. v. I). S. Augustine says that the 
whole good of man consists in imitating Christ; in his 
avoiding that which Christ despises, and choosing that 
which Christ approves of. 

Fourthly, in shewing hospitality. ‘‘ Levi made Him a 
great feast in his own house" (S. Luke v. 29); ** Be not 
forgetful to entertain strangers, for thereby some have 
entertained angels unawares” (Heb. xii. 2). If God be 
pleased by His angel being entertained, how much more 
is He pleased when He Himself is the guest. 

Fifthly, by the exhibition of all his sins. He calls him- 
self ** Matthew, sitting at the receipt of custom," by the 
name by which he was the better known, that so might 
also be better known his sin. ‘The other Evangelists call 
him by his name of Levi. 

III. On the third head, the blindness of the Pharisees is 
learned from five particulars. 

Firstly, they did not see their own sins. 

Secondly, they judged the lesser sins of others to be 
grievous, whilst they had pride in their own hearts, which is 
the greatest sin of all, whilst they condemned in others the 
lesser sins of envy, avarice, and the like. **'Thou hypo- 
crite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye, and then 
shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy 
brother's eye " (5. Matt. vii. 4). 

Thirdly, they vituperated Him, Whom they ought to 
have praised. He Who ought to be praised for His mercy 
and compassion to the body, these condemned. ‘A righ- 


teous man" (that is, Jesus Christ) **regardeth the life of his 
beast" (of those souls who by predestination are bearing 
his yoke), ** but the tender mercies of the wicked" (of the 
Pharisees) ** are cruel” (Prov. xii. 10). 

Fourtbly, they envied that in which they ought to have 
rejoiced; they envied the compassionate God. ‘I will sing 
of the mercies of the Lord for ever " (Ps. Ixxxix. 1). 

Fifthly, when they ought to be enlightened they became 
darkened, since they detracted from the mercifulness of 
God. ** Why eateth your Master with publicans and 
sinners " <‘ Have mercy upon us, O Lord God of all, 
and behold us" (Ecclus. xxxvi. 1). 

May we avoid the blindness of the Pharisees, and imi- 
tate the holiness of S. Matthew, and love and praise the 
mercy and compassion of God. 



S. Wice! and All Angels. 

S. Matt. xviii. 10.—'* Their Angels do always behold the face of My 
Father which is in heaven.” 
i these words three particulars are to be noted con- 
cerning the Holy Angels—Firstly, their benignity— 

‘Their Angels." Secondly, their joyousness—* the face 
of My Father.” Thirdly, their eternity—‘ always." 

I. On the first head is to be noted the benignity of 
the Holy Angels. 

This is manifest from their being spoken of as our and 
** their;" for from the first moment that a soul is created 
an angel is given to it, and surely it is a great thing that so 
noble a creature should be devoted to the service of sinful 
man, who is too so often ungrateful. The Angels are 
said to minister to us with a threefold service—by purify- 
ing, by enlightening, and by perfecting us. S. Dionysius 
says that these three operations are common to all the hier- 
archies. For firstly we are purified from evils, then we 
are illuminated in the understanding, and we are perfected 
in the affections. We are purified by the removal of 
depravity and unlikeness; we are enlightened by the recep- 
tion of Divine light; we are perfected by the enkindling 
Divine love. S. Dionysius describes each of these opera- 
tions. Of the first, it behoves the purified to be made 
pure, and to be freed from every effusion of unlikeness. 
Of the second, it behoves the enlightened to be filled with 
Divine light, and to be led back by the most chaste eyes 
of the mind to the quietest contemplation of virtue. Of 
the third, it behoves the renewed to be partakers of the 
sacraments of Divine knowledge. Because the Holy 
Angels do such things for us they are called our angels, 
and so show their benignity. 


II. On the second head is to be noted'the joyousness of 
the Holy Angels, who ** behold the face of My Father," 
which face of God possesses four attributes. It is— 

Firstly, an admirable face, on account of the infinity of 
its majesty. ‘* Thou, my Lord, art very admirable" (Esth. 
xv. I7). 

Secondly, a delightful face, on account of the multitude of 
its graces. ‘* Thy face is full of graces.” 

Thirdly, it is loveable for the brightness of its ineffable 
beauty. S. Augustine says, that so great is the joyousness 
of the Divine countenance that no one can ever look upon 
it without love. 

Fourthly, it is desirable, on account of the eternity of 
glory. ** Which things the Angels desire to look into” 
(1 S. Peter i. 12). 

III. On the third head the eternity of the Holy Angels is 
to be noted. ** Always”—that is (1) without intermission, 
(2) without end, and (3) ever joyous. Therefore the Holy 
Angels, although they are admitted to the exterior offices, 
never receed from the contemplation of the highest mys- 
teries. Eternity is the possession of life, wholly and for 


S, Luke the Eoangelist. 

S. Luke x. 3.—** Behold I send you forth as lambs among wolves.” 

| these words three things are to be noted. Firstly, 

the confidence which is given to the saints—*I send 
you." Secondly, their innocence—“ as lambs.” ‘Thirdly, 
the malice of the wicked—“ among wolves." 

I. On the frst head is to be noted the confidence of 
the saints from their Master, ** I send you forth" —I Who 

Firstly, good, that I may be willing to defend you. ‘I 
am the Good Shepherd ; the good shepherd giveth his life 
for the sheep" (S. John x. 11), for their defence. 

Secondly, wise, that I may know how to defend them. 
** While I was with them I kept them" (S. John xvii. 12). 

Thirdly, omnipotent, that I may be able to deliver them. 
“ He shall gather the lambs with His arm" (Isa. xl. 11). 
The arm signifies strength, so it means, He shall defend 
them by His strength. 

II. On the second head is to be noted the innocency of 
the saints, who are called ** lambs " for three reasons. 

Firstly, on account of their simplicity. ‘ Be ye harm- 
less as doves" (S. Matt. x. 16). 

Secondly, on account of their innocency. ‘ Giving no 
offence in anything" (2 Cor. vi. 3). 

irdly, on account of their meekness. **I was like a 

lamb brought to the slaughter" (Jer. xi. 19). 

III. On the zhird head is to be noted the malice of the 
wicked, who are called ** wolves" for three reasons. 

Firstly, on account of worthlessness. The wolf is a 
rapacious animal, and therefore it signifies the worthless- 
ness of harming by evil things. ** A wolf of the evening 
shall spoil them” (Jer. v. 6). 


Secondly, on account of envy. ‘The wolf has a lowering 
countenance, it gives tongue to a man if it sees him before 
it is seen by him, and therefore it signifies envy. ** An 
evil beast [that is, envy] hath devoured him" (Gen. xxxvii. 


Thirdly, the wolf is a cruel animal, and it signifies the 
cruelty of the wicked. ‘‘ Her judges are evening wolves" 
(Zeph. iii. 3). 

Blessed is the holy one, innocent and gentle as a lamb, 
yet guarded by wisdom and goodness, and led to the fold 
of eternal life. 


SS. Simon and Jude, 


S. John xv. 19.—** Ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you 
out of the world, therefore the world hateth you." 
HREE points are to be noted in these words. Firstly, 
the dignity of the saints—‘‘ Ye are not of this 
world.” Secondly, the benignity of Christ—**I have 
chosen you out of the world." ‘Thirdly, the malignity of 
the world—-** therefore the world hateth you.” 

I. On the frst head it is to be noted, that the dignity of 
the saints is so great because they are not of this world, 
but “of the household of God" (Eph. ii. 19). **Our 
conversation [or citizenship] is in heaven" (Philipp. iii. 20). 
They are not of this world, for— 

Firstly, they despise the world and all it contains. 
** Behold, we have forsaken all" (S. Matt. xix. 27); **Love 
not the world, neither the things that are in the world" 
(1S. John ii. 15) ; **I have suffered the loss of all things 
and do count them but dung" (Philipp. iii. 8). 

Secondly, the world persecutes the saints. **If ye were 
of the world, the world would love his own, but because 
ye are not of the world, therefore the world hateth you" 
(S. John xv. 19). 

Thirdly, the saints live not after the fashion of the 
world. It is the wont of the world to rejoice, to abound 
in pleasures ; the habit of the saints is to be sorrowful, and 
to afflict their souls. ** Ye shall weep and lament, but 
the world shall rejoice” (S. John xvi. 20). 

II. On the second head is to be noted the benignity of 
Christ in choosing His disciples out of the world. He 
chose servants most uncouth that they might become the 
elect. ** Ye have not chosen Me, but I have chosen you 
and ordained you,” &c. (S. John xv. 16). 


For these three reasons our Blessed Lord elected the 
saints out of the world. On account— 

Firstly, of the malignity of the world. ‘The whole 
world lieth in wickedness” (1 S. John v. 19), że. in 
knavish craftiness. 

Secondly, of the pains and punishments that are in it. 
** All things are full of labour; the eye is not satisfied 
with seeing, nor the ear with hearing" (Eccles. i. 8). 
This world is to be contemned, for at one time it delights 
the soul with pleasant things, at another it weighs it down 
with many calamities. 

Thirdly, of the necessity that it lies under of passing 
away. *' The world passeth away and the lust thereof” 
(1 5. John ii. 17). 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that the world 
hates the saints for three reasons. 

Firstly, because it is enlightened by them. ‘‘ Ye are 
the light of the world” (S. Matt. v. 14); ** Ye are all the 
children of light and the children of the day" (1 Thess. 
v. 5). 

Secondly, because it is delivered from danger by them. 
«I will not destroy it for ten's sake" (Gen. xvii. 32). 
Whence it follows that the world is preserved for the sake 
of the holy. 

Thirdly, because it is saved by them; hence it was said 
to one of them, he called him ** Zaphnath-paaneah" (Gen. 
. xli. 45), “in the Egyptian tongue, the Saviour of the 
world." << He shall send them a saviour and a great one” 
(Isa. xix. 20). It is manifest that these words apply to 
the saints, since they were not of the world, but were the 
elect of God, and therefore the world hates them and 
kills them; but by this means they attain unto eternal life. 
To which life may we be led through the merits of Jesus 
Christ our Lord. 


All Saints, 

S. Matt. v. 1.—** Seeing the multitudes He went up into a mountain.” 

[^ these words two points are to be noted— Firstly, the 
goodness of God—-** Jesus seeing." Secondly, His 
majesty—'* He went up into a mountain." 

I. On the frst head, the Goopness of our Lord Jesus 
" Christ, it is to be noted that **the multitudes” which 
Jesus saw God beheld at different ages with the eyes of 
His goodness. 

(1) The multitude of Angels. "These He beheld in the be- 
ginning of time, when He confirmed them in their blessed- 
ness. ** God saw the light that it was good" (Gen. i. 4). 
This light S. Augustine calls the angelic nature. To this 
first band belonged the first beatitude, ** Blessed are the 
poor in spirit" —z.e., the humble angels who stood out as poor 
from pride where Lucifer was both rich and full with his 

(2) The multitude of Patriarchs which He saw by en- 
lightening them by faith. **I saw your fathers as the 
firstripe in the fig-tree” (Hos. ix. Io). Such were the 
patriarchs, who were meek, who preserved their meekness 
under so many sufferings, and therefore the land of pro- 
mise was given to them. 

(3) The multitude of Prophets whom He saw when 
illumining with the prophetic light. ** Before I formed 
thee in the belly I knew thee” (Jer. i. 5). Such were the 
mourners, who were ever weeping for the sin which they 
saw around them. 

(4) The multitude cf Apostles which He saw when 
sending them out to preach. ‘And Jesus saw two 
brethren, and He saith unto them, Follow Me, and I will 

E | 


make you fishers of men” (S. Matt. iv. 18, 19). These 
are the Apostles who so hungered after righteousness that 
they sought for it through the whole world that they might 
be satisfied. 

(5) The multitude of Martyrs whom in their passion He 
beholds and comforts. ‘‘ The eyes of the Lord are upon 
the righteous" (Ps. xxxiv. 15). These were so full of 
mercy that they prayed it might be showed even to their 

6. The multitude of Virgins, whom seeing He joined for 
ever to Himself. <‘ They which follow the Lamb whither- 
soever He goeth ... these are they which were not defiled . 
with women, for they are virgins” (Rev. xiv. 4). Such are 
chaste both in soul and body. 

(7) The multitude of Confessors. ‘*'The eye of the Lord 
is upon them that fear Him” (Ps. xxxii. 18). These, 
that they may live in peace, separate themselves as far as 
possible from all wickedness. 

The goodness of our Blessed Lord is manifest in His 
beholding these classes of His servants. 

II. On the second head is to be noted the Majesty of 
the Lord—*'* He went up into a mountain." 

This mountain was threefold. 

(1) The Divinity of the Father. ‘This is the hill 
which God desired to dwell in: yea, the Lord will dwell in 
it for ever" (Ps. lxviii. 16); ** Dwelling in the light which 
no man can approach unto" (1 S. Tim. vi. 16). This moun- 
tain our Blessed Lord ascended from eternity in generation 
from His Father. **I ascend to My Father" (S. John 
xx. 17). 

(2) The virginity of His mother. He ascended this moun- 
tain at His Incarnation—*'* A stone was cut out without 
hands" (Dan. ii. 34)—as Jesus Christ was born of the 
Virgin without human agency. ** The Lord rideth upon 
a swift cloud" (Isa. xix. 1). 

(3) The sublimity of heaven. ** Who shall ascend 
into the hill of the Lord" (Ps. xxiv. 3). He ascended 
this mountain on His Ascension into heaven. ‘* He as- 


ial up on high; He led captivity captive” (Eph. 
iv. 8). 
Of our Blessed Lord appeared— 

(1) His eternity when He ascended the first mountain, 
teaching us that He is to be adored. 

(2) His humanity when He ascended the second moun- 
tain, teaching us that He is to be loved. 

(3) His glory when He ascended the third mountain, 
teaching us that He is to be desired. 

E 2 


S, Andrew's Day. 

S. Matt. iv. 20.—'*'They straightway left their nets and followed 

HE Apostles SS. Peter and Andrew teach us three 
things by their example — Firstly, to obey God 
immediately—** They straightway.” Secondly, to leave, 
if needs be, our worldly callings for His sake—'*they 
left their nets." Thirdly, to go after and imitate our 
Blessed Lord—** and followed Him." 

I. On the frst head it is to be noted, that on four 
accounts we ought to obey the call of God *' straightway.” 

In the frst place, because we often die “ straightway” or 
immediately. ** What is your life? It is even a vapour 
that appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth away” 
(S. James iv. 14). 

In the second place, because His anger comes *' straight- 
way" upon the disobedient. ** Sudden destruction cometh 
upon them" (I Thess. v. 3); ‘‘ Whose breaking cometh 
suddenly, at an instant" (Isa. xxx. 13). 

In the zbird place, because a reward is given to those 
who **straightway" obey. **Ithe Lord will hasten it" 
(Isa. lx. 22); the Prophet speaking in this place of the 
reward of the saints. 

In the fourth place, because the rational creatures are 
* straightway” ready to obey Him. <‘ And presently the 
fig-tree withered away" (S. Matt. xxi. I9) at the Lord's 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the net 
which is to be left is a fourfold one. 

The frst net is worldly counsels and divinations. The 
follower of such **is cast into a net by his own feet" (Job 
xviii. 8). 

S. ANDREW' S DAY. * 53 

The second net is bad women, who of men it is said 
“ they catch them in their net" (Hab. i. 15). 

The z2ird net is a false, flattering friend. ** A man that 
flattereth his neighbour spreadeth a net for his feet" (Prov. 
XXiX. 5). 

The fourth net is the Divine judgment. ‘I will spread 
My net upon them" (Hos. vii. 12). | 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that the Lord 
promises four rewards to those who follow Him. 

The frst is brightness of life. ** He that followeth Me 
shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life" 
(S. John viii. 12). This appeals to the reason. 

The second is the power of judgment.  ** Ye which have 
followed Me, in the regeneration when the Son of Man 
shall sit on the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit upon 
twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel" (S. 
Matt. xix. 28). This appeals to the irascible faculty. 

The third is an heavenly treasure. ‘‘ Thou shalt have 
treasure in heaven, and come and follow Me" (S. Matt. 
xix. 21). The third appeals to the faculty of desire. 

The fourth is a delightful dwelling place. ‘If any man 
serve Me, let him follow Me; and where I am there also 
shall My servant be" (S. John xii. 26). "This appeals to 
the body. 


S, Thomas the Spostle 


Habak. üi. 10.-—‘' The deep uttered his voice and lifted up his hands 
on high.” 
WO points are to be noted in these words which can 
be applied to S. Thomas—Firstly, the fidelity of S. 
Thomas—* The deep uttered his voice." Secondly, the 
divine goodness—** lifted up his hands on high." 

S. Thomas is called * deep" for three reasons. 

Frstly, on account of the signification of the name, for 
Thomas means an abyss or **a deep." 

Secondly, on account of the signification of the etymology; 
for abyss is composed of the letter a, which means with- 
out, and byssus is flax linen, which is white. So $. 
Thomas was sometime an abyss, as being without the 
whiteness and light of faith. 

Thirdly, on account of its definition, for an abyss is a 
great gathering together of waters. ‘These waters are the 
profound words which were in S. Thomas. ‘‘ The words 
of a man's mouth are as deep waters" (Prov. xviii. 4). 

This abyss uttered a fivefold voice. 

Firstly, of love. ** Let us also go that we may die with 
Him" (S. John xi. 16). 

Secondly, of doubt. ‘‘ Except I see in His hands the 
print of the nails, and thrust my hand into His side, I will 
not believe" (S. John xx. 25). 

er of confession. ‘‘ My Lord and my God" (id. 
v. 20). 

Fourthly, of obedience. ‘‘ Lord, send me whither Thou 

Fifthly, of justice, when he demanded that he who had 
smitten the Lord should be immediately punished. 

S. Thomas also uttered a sixth voice, by preaching the 
conversion of the Jews and of the bride and bridegroom. 


II. On the second head is to be noted the goodness of 
God—* And lifted up his hands on high." Christ did 
this when He “lifted up His hands on high,” showing to 
S. Thomas the proof of His Resurrection. 

The Lord Jesus also lifted up His hands for four pur- 

Firstly, on the Cross, offering the Sacrifice for the expia- 
tion of the world. **'The lifting up of my hands as the 
evening sacrifice" (Ps. cxli. 2). 

Secondly, for giving His Benediction. **He lifted up 
His hands and blessed them" (S. Luke xxiv. 50). 

Thirdly, for the showing of His power. ‘I lift up my 
hand to heaven" (Deut. xxxii. 40). 

Fourthly, for the smiting of the wicked. “< Lift up Thy 
hand against the strange nations" (Ecclus. xxxvi. 5). 

For the first lifting up of His hands we ought to love 
Him above all things. 

For the second, to render thanks to Him.  * Blessed be 
God and the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Who hath 
blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places" 
(Eph. i. 3). 

For the third, to fear Him. ‘‘ Fear Him Which is able 
to destroy both body and soul in hell” (S. Matt. x. 28). 

For the fourth, He is to be obeyed. ‘‘ Whosoever will 
not hearken unto My words which He shall speak in My 
Name, I will require it of him" (Deut. xviii. 19). 

To which Benediction may Christ bring us. 


Easter Dap. 


Ps. cxviii. 24.—‘ This is the day which the Lord hath made, we 
will rejoice and be glad in it.” 

WO points are contained in these words—Firstly, the 

solemnity of the Resurrection is commended—‘* This 

is the day,” &c. Secondly, what we ought to do on it— 
** we will rejoice,” &c. 

I. On the first head it is to be noted, that designedly He 
said, ** This is the day,” since it is a day which is— 

Firstly, admirable. 

This (1) the heavens declare by sending down an angel 
of heaven. “The Angel of the Lord descended from 
heaven" (S. Matt. xxviii, 2). 

(2) The earth proves also ‘‘there was a great earth- 
quake" (:4.) | 

(3) Hades proclaims this, ** Many bodies of the saints 
who slept arose" (S. Matt. xxvii. 52). 

This day is also admirable because in it death was 
vanquished, life was renewed, the access to eternity un- 
closed. So the Church prays to Him as to one “ Who on 
this day hast opened unto us the access to eternity, death 
being overcome." 

Secondly, desirable. 

(1) By the heavens that they may be repaired, since 
He Who repairs the ruins of heaven has risen. ‘‘ That 
He might gather together in one all things in Christ, 
both which are in heaven and which are in earth" (Eph. 
i. IO). 

(2) By the earth that it may be enlightened, as it was 
this day, by the light of the sun and moon and stars. The 
Sun is Christ Who illumines this day with the light of 


glory; since glorious to-day, as the true sun returning to 
the earth, He illumined it with His glory. The moon is 
the Angel, who, descending from heaven, illumined the 
world with his brightness: ** His countenance was like 
lightning." ‘The stars were represented by the Maries, 
which means stars. The Maries were as stars rising ; with 
their rays of joy they put to flight the darkness of sorrow 
from the hearts of the Apostles: ** Mary Magdalene came 
and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord" (S. John 
xx. 18). 

(3) By the dead, that they may be raised to life. 
* Now is Christ risen from the dead, and become the first 
fruits of them that slept" (1 Cor. xv. 20). 

II. On the second head is to be noted what we ought to 
do n it. ** We will rejoice and be glad," both in heart and 
in life. 

Firstly, we ought to rejoice in heart in a threefold 

(1) By rejoicing with Christ Who is risen. ** Then 
were the disciples glad when they saw the Lord" (S. John 
XX. 20). 

(2) By rising with Him from the dead. ‘‘If ye then 
be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above" 
(Coloss. iii. 1). 

(3) By rejoicing in the hope of our own resurrection, 
which was begun as on this day. ‘‘If there be no resur- 
rection of the dead, then is Christ not risen" ( 1 Cor. xv. 13); 
but as Christ has risen, there is also a resurrection for the 

Secondly, we ought to-day to rejoice in our life in a three- 
fold manner. 

(1) In newness of life, by walking in honesty of 
living. ** As Christ was raised from the dead by the glory 
of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of 
life" (Rom. vi. 4). 

(2) In celebrating this day's festival. **' Thou shalt 
therefore keep this ordinance in his season from year to 
year" (Exod. xiii. 10). 


(3) In singing praises to our risen Lord. <‘ Sing unto 
God, sing praises unto His Name" (Ps. xviii. 4). 

S. Gregory says that it is not right that the tongue of 
flesh should be silent in the Divine praises on this day. 
** We will rejoice and be glad" in the day of the Resur- 
rection of Christ, that hereafter we may rejoice with Him 
in the day of our own resurrection. 


The Ascension Bay. 


Acts i. 11.—“ Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into 
heaven ?” 

HE Angels, in these words — firstly, reprove the 

wonder of the Apostles; secondly, they assert the 

Ascension of the Lord; thirdly, they predict His return 
once more to earth. 

I. On the frst head it is to be noted, that the Angels re- 
proved the wonder of the Apostles in the words—‘‘ Why 
stand ye gazing up into heaven ?" 

Concerning which four points are to be noted. 

Firstly, the Apostles were amazed at the Ascension, 
which was accomplished with so great glory and power, and 
about which also the Angels themselves were so zealous, 
asking ** Who is this?" (Isa. lxiii. I). And remark the 
excellence of this Ascension, His difference from others 
who were taken from the earth. How great, indeed, 
is the contrast between our Blessed Lord and Enoch and 

Secondly, the Apostles were grieving at His departure. 
The Great Comforter was going away from them. ‘‘ Ye 
shall weep and lament, but the world shall rejoice” (S. 
John xvi. 20); * Wo, wo is me, my son, why did we 
send thee to go to a strange country; the light of our 
eyes" (‘Tobit x. 4). | 

Thirdly, the Apostles were fearing, because of the perse- 
cutions which they expected from the world, since they 
were left alone amidst those tribulations of the world which 
Jesus had already spoken to them about. ‘‘ In the world 
ye shall have tribulation” (S. John xvi. 33). 

Fourthly, the Apostles were confiding in their Lord's 


promises to them. ‘I go to my Father” by the substrac- 
tion of My Body: **I will see you again, and your heart 
Shall rejoice" (S. John xvi. 22). I will come again to you 
through the mission of the Holy Ghost: **I will pray the 
Father, and He shall give you another Comforter" (S. John 
xiv. I6); *Lo! Iam with you alway, even unto the end 
of the world" (S. Matt. xxviii. 20). 

II. On the second head it is to be noted, that the Angels 
assert the Ascension of the Lord: ‘‘ This same Jesus 
Which is taken up from you into heaven;" about which 
four things are to be noted. 

Firstly, Jesus ascended from earth in the sight of the 
Apostles, who represented the earth. 

Secondly, Jesus ascended into heaven. “Two men stood 
by them in white apparel.” These Angels were the repre- 
sentatives of and witnesses from heaven. 

Thirdly, Jesus ascended through the clouds. — ** A cloud 
received Him out of their sight." "This cloud represents 
the Almighty Father into Whose presence the Son as- 
cended. ‘The cloud is the witness of God the Father. 

Fourthly, Jesus ascended in the act of blessing. ** He 
lifted up His hands and blessed them; while He blessed 
them He was parted from them and carried up into 
heaven" (S. Luke xxiv. 51). Our Lord was so His own 
witness that He ascended in His flesh—in that very flesh 
in which He had been crucified, and in which also He 
rose from the dead. 

These four witnesses—earth, heaven, God the Father, 
and God the Son—establish the truth of the Ascension of 
the Lord. 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that the Angels 
predict our Blessed Lord's return to earth. He ‘shall so 
come in like manner as ye have seen Him go into heaven." 

Of our Lord's coming to judgment four things are to be 
noted as in regard to His Ascension. 

Frstly, the earth shall witness it, for the Judge will be 
seen alike by the righteous and the wicked. ‘‘ They shall 
see the Son of Man" (S. Matt. xxiv. 30). 


Secondly, God shall bear witness to it, for the Judge will 
be ** coming in the clouds." 

Thirdly, with His hands raised for smiting sinners. 
** With power and great glory" (id.) 

Fourthly, with holy Angels as His witnesses standing 
around Him, Whom they shall precede, bearing the in- 
signia of His Passion. ** And He shall send His Angels 
with a great sound of a trumpet." 


Whit- Sunday. 


S. John xiv. 46.—'*'The Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, 
Whom the Father will send in My Name, He shall teach you 
all things and bring all things to your remembrance.” 

N these words, which treat of the mission of the Holy 

Ghost, three points are to be noted. Firstly, the 
authority of those who send Him—** Whom the Father 
will send in My Name." Secondly, the benignity of Him 

Who is sent—** The Comforter.” Thirdly, the usefulness 

of His mission—** He shall teach you all things," &c. 

On the frst head it is to be noted, that God the Father 
and God the Son are They Who send God the Holy Ghost, 
for these breathe forth the Holy Spirit, and so the Spirit 
with one motion proceeds from the Father and the Son. 
** When the Comforter is come Whom I will send unto 
you from the Father" (S. John xv. 26). Now, if to 
breathe be to send Him forth, and the Father and the 
Son both send the Holy Ghost, it is obvious that both the 
Father and the Son breathe out the Holy Spirit, and so 
we gain an insight into the doctrine of the whole Trinity. 
God the Father is He Who sends, God the Son the means 
through Whom the Father sends, and God the Holy Ghost 
is He Who is sent. 

II. On the second head is to be noted the benignity of 
Him Who is sent. ‘The word Paraclete signifies comforter 
or advocate; now both these offices imply especially the 
exercise of goodness, and goodness is a peculiar attribute 
of God the Holy Ghost, so He is said to be our Com- 
forter in trouble and our Advocate in blessings. He is our 
Advocate in respect of blessings or benefactions, since the 
law of divine goodness of which the Holy Ghost charged 
with a commission on our behalf (because goodness is 
attributed to Him) is the means by whom the blessings of 
God flow down upon us. ` 


God the Holy Ghost is our Advocate in respect of three 
kinds of blessings or benefits. 

Firstly, those of nature: **'Thou sendest forth Thy 
Spirit, they are created " (Ps. civ. 30), by which words it 
is declared that all the blessings of nature flow from God 
the Holy Ghost. 

Secondly, the blessings of grace: “s The love of God is 
shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost" (Rom. 
vi. 5). 

Da, the blessings of glory: ‘The Kingdom of 
God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, peace, and 
joy in the Holy Ghost " (Rom. xiv. 17). 

God the Holy Ghost is our Comforter in a threefold 
way in all our miseries. 

Firstly, by giving heavenly consolations in tribulations : 
** [n much affliction with joy of the Holy Ghost” (1 Thess. 
i. 6). 

Secondly, by increasing the gifts of His special graces in 
trials: ** We glory in tribulations also, knowing that tribu- 
lution worketh patience " (Rom. v. 3); ** Thou hast en- 
larged me when I was in distress" (Ps. iv. 1). 

Thirdly, by shewing how great are those by which 
suffering will be rewarded : ‘‘ The sufferings of this pre- 
sent time are not worthy to be compared with the glory 
which shall be revealed in us" (Rom. viii. 18). 

III. On the third head it is to be noted, that the useful- 
ness of the mission of God the Holy Ghost is twofold, for 

Firstly, He teaches all thing—firstly, that we may know 
what is good; and, secondly, that we may perform it. 
Now, there are five kinds of knowledge which are neces- 
sary to salvation : 

1. The fear of the Lord: ** Behold the fear of the Lord, 
that is wisdom" (Job xxviii. 28). 

2. To depart from evil: ** To depart from evil is under- 
standing" (id. v. 28). 

. 3. To do good. 
4. To endure wrongs. 


5. To persevere in all these things. ‘‘ This,” says S. 
Augustine, **is the science or learning of the saints, to do 
good, to endure wrongs, and to persevere in all these 

Secondly, He brings all things to remembrance, He ad- 
vises what is good, and exhorts us to follow it in a three- 
fold manner. 

I. As if compelling us to do good: ‘The breath 
[or Spirit] of the Lord like a stream of brimstone” (Isa. 
xxx. 33); ** The love of Christ constraineth us” (2 Cor. 
v. I4). 

Poy enticing or alluring : ** O how good and sweet 
is Thy Spirit, O Lord, in all things" (Wisd. xii. 1). 

3. By giving Himself a pledge for the certainty of the 
reward: ** Given the earnest of the Spirit in our hearts ” 
(2 Cor. i. 22), which pledge is of equal value with the 
thing itself, for he who possesses the earnest or pledge 
of the spiritual inheritance is secure about obtaining the 
heavenly inheritance in due time. To which inheritance 
may we be brought, &c. 


Trinity Sunday. 


Rom. xi. 33.—'* O the depths of the riches both of the wisdom and 
knowledge of God! how unsearchable are His judgments, and 
His ways past finding out." 

HREE points are to be noted in these words which 
are contemplated as belonging to God—(1) His 

Divinity, (2) His Unity, (3) His Trinity. Firstly Divinity, 

then Trinity in Divinity, and Unity in Trinity. Divinity 

of majesty, Trinity of persons, Unity of essence. This 
implied statement of doctrine refutes three errors which we 
sometimes find held respecting God. Some persons fall 
into error concerning His Divinity, not allowing God to be 

God: **'T'he fool hath said in his heart there is no God” 

(Ps. xiv. 1). Others there are who assign to the creature 

the attributes of God, and who worship it rather than 

Him: ** Who worshipped and served the creature more 

than the Creator, Who is blessed for ever. Amen” (Rom. 

v. 25). Others, also, are in error as to the Unity of God, 

saying that there be Gods many and Lords many. 

I. On the frst head is to be noted the Divinity of the 
Godhead. ‘The Divinity of the Godhead includes three 
perfections—(1) depth or heighth, (2) fulness, (3) breadth 
or space. And these are according to three other corres- 
ponding qualities which unite in God—(I) nature, (2) 
power, (3) operation. 

Firstly, God is high in nature. ‘‘ Dwelling in the light 
which no man can approach unto" (1 S. Tim. vi. 16). 

Secondly; God is full of power, since with Him are 
the riches of wisdom. | 

Thirdly, He is also broad and universal in His works; 
for ** His judgments are unsearchable, and His ways past 



finding out.” ** His judgments,” or decrees, by which He 
ordains all things; ** His ways,” or means, by which His 
works and operations are carried on. 

To these three attributes can be applied seriatim the 
several clauses in the following passage :—‘‘ For who hath 
known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been His 
counsellor? or who hath first given to Him, and it shall 
be recompensed unto him again?" (Rom. xi. 34, 35). 

II. On the second head, the Trinity of Persons, we note— 

(1) That this doctrine is expressed by the words, ** For 
of Him, and through Him, and to Him are all things" 
(id. v. 36), in which the distinction of persons is so fully 
sustained by the use of the three separate prepositions. 

Firstly, ** of Him" is the same as ** out of Him," which 
marks the authority of the head or beginning, and there- 
fore the ** out of Him" is understood of the Father, Who 
is the fount and origin of the Divinity. 

Secondly, the word **through" signifies the manner of 
operation; and, therefore, in this instance, the “through 
Him" applies tothe Son.  ** All things were made by Him; 
and without Him was not anything made that was made" 
(S. John i. 3). 

The **to Him" many also mean ‘‘in Him." In either 
case it denotes a certain preservation which enables us to 
apply this **to Him" to God the Holy Ghost. 

This is one way in which the threefold personality of 
the one Godhead is set forth. 

(2) Another method is by the naming of distinct 
persons—as mentioning ‘‘the Father,” **the Son," and 
** the Holy Ghost." 

Lastly, by assigning certain attributes to particular per- 
sons of this Godhead. Thus God the Father is repre- 
sented by power; God the Son, by wisdom; and God 
the Holy Ghost, by goodness. 

III. On the third head is to be noted the Unity of the 
Godhead. This is expressed by the words **to Whom" 


as of one person; the word is used in the singular, not 
in the plural. 

About this glory three points are to be noted, for it 
ought to be referred to themselves, that is to say—firstly, 
glory of heart ; secondly, glory of mouth; thirdly, glory 

of work. Or one glory on account of creation; another . - 

glory on account of redemption; a third glory by glorifica- 
tion hereafter.